History of the Federal TRIO Program
The TRIO programs were the first national college access and retention programs to address the serious social and cultural barriers to education in America.
The history of TRIO is progressive. It began with Upward Bound, which emerged out of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 in response to the administration’s War on Poverty. In 1965, Talent Search outreach program, was created as part of the Higher Education Act. In 1968, Student Support Services, which was originally known as Special Services for Disadvantaged Students, was authorized by the Higher Education Amendment and became the third in a series of educational opportunity programs. By the late 1960’s the term “TRIO” was coined to describe these programs.
Over the years, the TRIO Programs have been expanded and improved to provide a wider range of services and to reach more student who need assistance. The Higher Education Amendments of 1972 added the fourth program to the TRIO group by authorizing the Educational Opportunity Centers (EOC). The 1976 Education Amendments authorized the Training Program for Federal TRIO Programs, initially known as the Training Program for Special Programs Staff and Leadership Personnel.
Amendments in 1986 added the sixth program, the Ronald E. McNair Post-baccalaureate Achievement Program. Additionally, the 1990, the Department created the Upward Bound Math/Science program to address the need for specific instruction in the fields of math and science. The Upward Bound Math/Science program is administered under the same regulations as the regular Upward Bound program, but it must be applied for separately. Finally, the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2001 amended the Student Support Services (SSS) program to permit the use of program funds for direct financial assistance (Grand Aid) for current SSS participants who are receiving Federal Pell Grants.
Through a grant competition, funds are awarded to institutions of higher education to provide opportunities for academic development, assist students with basic college requirements, and to motivate students toward the successful completion of their postsecondary education. The goal of Student Supports Services is to increase the college retention and graduation rates of its participants.