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APA Historical Database: Selected Entries

On August 14:

1866 — Henry H. Goddard was born. Goddard was the first psychologist at the Vineland Training School (1906), originally called the New Jersey School for Feeble-Minded Boys and Girls. Goddard and Elizabeth Kite first translated the Binet-Simon intelligence scale into English (1908). He is also known for the Kallikak family study, which he took as evidence for the genetic foundation of intelligence.

1913 — Josef Brožek was born. Brožek has written extensively on the history and systems of psychology, especially Russian psychology. His other research has included work on nutrition and behavior.

1926 — Paul A. Kolers was born. Kolers is known for his work in the perception of motion. He was also interested in symbols, semantics, remembering, and imagining. He developed a cognitive procedural theory, indicating that the mind can be understood through the study of the procedures necessary to complete complex mental acts.

1934 — Charles A. Kiesler was born. Kiesler's interests have been in social psychology, attitudes and opinions, and mental health policy. APA Executive Officer, 1975-1979; APA Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, 1989; American Psychological Society President, 1989.

1952 — President Truman appointed the former Ambassador to Moscow, Alan G. Kirk, to direct the Psychological Strategy Board. The board coordinated U.S. postwar propaganda efforts, designed to offset Soviet propaganda.

1963 — A Central Intelligence Agency document outlined a program of behavioral research on hypnosis, amnesia, and pain. Funds were channeled through the "Human Ecology Fund" to institutions that did not know their true source. Carl Rogers, Edgar Schein, Martin Orne, Charles Osgood, and Wilse Webb were among the unwitting participants in this project.

1969 — Joseph Wolpe's book Practice of Behavior Therapy was published.

1971 — Philip Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiment began with the mock arrests of college student volunteers who had been assigned the roles of prisoners in the simulation study. The roles so strongly controlled the behavior of the mock guards and prisoners that the experiment was terminated on August 20, less than halfway through the two weeks planned for the study.

1992 — Former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop delivered the keynote address to the 100th Annual Convention of the APA. As surgeon general, Koop compiled a record of objective public health advocacy even when the evidence was contrary to political convenience and his own personal preferences. Koop spoke on the changing face of health care in the future.

Copyright © 1995, American Psychological Association. Web version by permission. Source: Street, W. R. (1994). A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The American Psychological Association and Central Washington University have supported the development of the APA Historical Database.

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