1877 — Karl Abraham was born. Abraham, a German psychoanalyst, proposed that adult personality could be traced to childhood experiences and fixation at early developmental stages. His important writing included papers on bipolar disorder, dementia praecox, and character formation.
1894 — Phyllis Greenacre was born. Greenacre was a psychoanalyst with special interests in sublimation, transference, and fetishism.
1900 — Psychologist Gabriele Grafin von Wartensleben became the first woman to earn the PhD from the University of Vienna. In 1914, von Wartensleben published the first general description of Gestalt psychology.
1939 — David Wechsler's book The Measurement of Adult Intelligence was published.
1945 — The Journal of Clinical Psychology was first published. Frederick C. Thorne was the journal's editor.
1963 — The first volume of the Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, edited by R. Duncan Luce, Robert Bush, and Eugene Galanter, was published.
1965 — Queen Elizabeth II granted a royal charter to the British Psychological Society. The society had been founded in London in 1901.
1969 — Niccolò Machiavelli was featured on an Italian postage stamp. Machiavelli gave his name to a personality scale designed by Richard Christie and Florence Geis (1970) to measure the manipulative personality style.
1978 — California became the first state to grant hospital staff privileges to psychologists. State Senator Paul Carpenter, a psychologist, wrote the legislation, which was signed by Governor Jerry Brown.
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