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APA Historical Database: Selected Entries

On March 11:

1843 — Harald Höffding was born. Höffding maintained that all mental events are physical in nature, to be studied through introspection. He identified the recognition of similar elements as the determinant of transfer of training. Höffding wrote the first Danish psychology text in 1882.

1861 — The first public mental hospital in Texas, the State Lunatic Asylum in Austin, was formally opened. The institution was supported by proceeds from 100,000 acres of public land. The hospital is now named Austin State Hospital.

1893 — Lipot Szondi was born. Szondi developed a theory of the genetic origin of personality. His projective test of personality was based on the proposition that one would be attracted to the face of a person whose genetic type and, therefore, personality was similar to one's own.

1901 — Willard S. Small's article "Experimental Study of the Mental Processes of the Rat II" was published in the American Journal of Psychology. This was the first article to report a study of maze learning in the rat and to use the term psychobiology. Other articles in the series reported physical development and exploratory behavior in the rat.

1904 — Hilde Bruch was born. Bruch was a psychiatrist whose specialty was studies of eating disorders, especially anorexia and obesity.

1938 — The American Association on Mental Deficiency was incorporated in Pennsylvania.

1959 — Donald T. Campbell and Donald W. Fiske's article "Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix" was published in Psychological Bulletin. When a citation count was done in 1992, this article was found to be the most often cited article published in Psychological Bulletin in the past 40 years. It had been cited over 2,000 times.

1968 — The first meeting of the founding board of the California School of Professional Psychology, the nation's first independent professional school of psychology, was convened by Nicholas Cummings.

1968 — The antiepileptic drug Tegratol (carbamazepine; Geigy Pharmaceutical) was approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The physiological action of carbamazepine remains unknown.

1989 — The Pennsylvania Psychological Association dedicated its own headquarters building, the first state association to do so. The building was located at 416 Foster Street, in Harrisburg.

Copyright © 1995, American Psychological Association. Web version by permission. Source: Street, W. R. (1994). A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The American Psychological Association and Central Washington University have supported the development of the APA Historical Database.

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