1859 — Henri Bergson was born. A Nobel laureate, Bergson asserted that the phenomena of mind could not be understood by the methods of science.
1880 — James McKeen Cattell enrolled at the University of Göttingen and studied under Rudolf Lotze. Cattell went to Leipzig and worked under Wilhelm Wundt after Lotze died in 1881.
1890 — Charles F. Menninger read a paper titled "The Insanity of Hamlet" to a literary club in Topeka, Kansas. The research Menninger did for this paper has been cited as a beginning point in his interest in psychiatry. Mennninger, with his sons Karl and William, founded the multidisciplinary Menninger Clinic in 1919.
1897 — Isabel Briggs Myers was born. Myers constructed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was based on the personality theory of Carl Jung as interpreted by Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs.
1917 — The U.S. War Department created the Air Service Medical Research Laboratory within the U.S. Army Signal Corps. This unit, now the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, was organized at Hazelhurst Field, New York, on January 19, 1918. John B. Watson was on the first medical research board and Knight Dunlap headed the Psychology Department, which studied personnel selection, ability requirements, and the effects of "mental state" on pilot performance.
1928 — Clara M. Davis's article "Self-Selection of Diet by Newly Weaned Infants" was published in the American Journal of Diseases of Childhood. Often cited in introductory texts, this classic study showed that infants will choose a well-balanced diet if given free choice of foods.
1961 — J. McVicker Hunt's book Intelligence and Experience was published. By 1979, Hunt's book had been cited by over 490 other publications and was chosen as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.
1967 — Haldan Hartline, George Wald, and Ragnar Granit won the Nobel prize for their studies of the chemistry and physiology of vision.
1989 — Roger Sperry was awarded the National Medal of Science for his research on neurospecificity and hemispheric specialization.
1994 — President Clinton presented the 1995 National Medal of Science to Roger N. Shepard, recognizing 30 years of research in cognition. Shepard's studies of mental imagery have provided objective, quantitative evidence regarding human thought and perception. His findings have been applied to diverse problems, such as aircraft cockpit design, educational programming, and the detection of breast cancer.
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