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APA Historical Database: Selected Entries


On October 15:

1346 — The impoverished priory and order of St. Mary of Bethlehem, later to become Bethlehem Hospital ("Bedlam"), was taken under the patronage and protection of Richard Lacer, mayor of London, and the citizens of London. The act brought to an end a century of "disaster, poverty, and failure."

1783François Magendie was born. Magendie is primarily known for his discovery of the differentiation of sensory and motor spinal nerves. Magendie made this discovery after, but independently of, Charles Bell. His studies advanced the experimental study of the physiology of behavior.

1844Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was born. Nietzsche developed a theory of human motivation that emphasized the primacy of an instinctive will to power, repressed and disguised by reason.

1844 — Plans for forming the American Psychiatric Association were discussed in the home of Thomas S. Kirkbride of Philadelphia, one of the founders. The formal founding took place the next day at the Jones Hotel, also in Philadelphia. The original name of the organization was the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane.

1886 — Upon returning to Vienna from Paris, Sigmund Freud gave his first public lecture on Charcot's proof of hysteria in males. Ridiculed by Viennese medical circles, Freud set out to find an actual case to present to the medical society.

1962 — Norman Sundberg and Leona Tyler's Clinical Psychology, a standard text, was published.

1963 — Stanley Milgram's article "Behavioral Study of Obedience" was published in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Milgram's demonstration of situational control over destructive obedience has been of interest for over three decades. In 1981, this article was featured as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

1963 — Richard Held and Alan Hein's article "Movement-Produced Stimulation in the Development of Visually Guided Behavior" was published in the Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology.

1968 — The Soviet Union authorized doctoral-level degrees in psychology. Previously, degrees were awarded in "pedagogical sciences" with a specialty in psychology.

1970Julius Axelrod, Sir Bernard Katz, and Ulf von Euler won the Nobel prize for their studies of the chemistry of nervous transmission. These studies contributed to the understanding of the biology of behavior.


Copyright © 1995, American Psychological Association. Web version by permission. Source: Street, W. R. (1994). A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The American Psychological Association and Central Washington University have supported the development of the APA Historical Database.

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