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APA Historical Database: Selected Entries

On September 9:

1737 — Luigi Galvani was born. Galvani discovered how nerves affect muscles and first described the electrical nature of nervous transmission.

1890 — Kurt Lewin was born. Lewin's field theory applied the principles of Gestalt perceptual theory to social, personality, and organizational psychology. Lewin and his students were pioneers of experimental social psychology and produced studies of cognitive dissonance, leadership, group cooperation and competition, conflict resolution, and group dynamics.

1893 — The Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (Vienna Medical Weekly) published Sigmund Freud's eulogy for Jean-Martin Charcot, who died on August 16, 1893. In the eulogy Freud likened Charcot's importance to that of Adam.

1899 — Theodora Mead Abel was born. Abel's work focused on problems of mental testing, retardation, and clinical psychology.

1900 — Lucien Warner was born. Warner's studies in comparative psychology and animal learning and motivation contributed to successful methods for training seeing-eye dogs.

1901 — Alexandra Adler was born. The daughter of Alfred Adler, she continued to refine the theory and applications of his individual psychology and to administer an Adlerian training center.

1902 — Fritz Redl was born. Redl's career was devoted to the study of the behavior of delinquent children. Redl's views emphasized the primacy of the child's entire social and environmental milieu in both the etiology and treatment of unmanageable behavior. His Children Who Hate (1951) and Controls From Within (1952) were widely read summaries of his work at Detroit's Pioneer House.

1909 — William James met Sigmund Freud in the evening at G. Stanley Hall's home. James stayed to hear Freud's lecture the next day and walked with Freud to the railroad station in the evening. Freud later reported James's courage during an attack of angina pectoris during this walk.

1933 — Dalmas A. Taylor was born. Through his commitment to education and professional growth of minority students, Taylor has increased the ethnic diversity of psychology. He was the first director of the APA's Minority Fellowship Program. His research interests have focused on self-disclosure. APA Award for Distinguished Education and Training Contributions, 1991.

1944 — Judith Rodin was born. Rodin is known for innovative studies of the factors influencing excessive behavior, with special attention given to obesity. On December 16, 1993, Rodin was elected president of the University of Pennsylvania, the first woman president of an Ivy League school. APA Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology, 1977.

1959 — The antipsychotic drug Permitil (fluphenazine; Schering) was approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Fluphenazine is one of the phenothiazine antipsychotics, probably acting by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. Prolixin (Squibb) is another trade name for fluphenazine and was approved by the FDA on September 15, 1959.

1975 — The Oklahoma Psychological Association was incorporated. Ellen Oakes, Melvyn Price, and Kenneth Sanvold were the original incorporating officers.

Copyright © 1995, American Psychological Association. Web version by permission. Source: Street, W. R. (1994). A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The American Psychological Association and Central Washington University have supported the development of the APA Historical Database.

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