[APA World Wide Web Logo]

APA Historical Database: Selected Entries


On August 21:

1873 — Edwin B. Holt was born. Holt combined a behavioral focus with an emphasis on intentions, wishes, and goals.

1909 — Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung sailed from Bremen to attend a conference at Clark University. On the previous day, Freud had fainted in Jung's presence. Jung later attributed the incident to a conversation about corpses found in a peat bog and Freud's inference that Jung's choice of topic symbolized the wish that Freud were dead. Freud attributed the event to fatigue and wine.

1916 — Milton Theaman was born. Theaman has promoted the autonomy of professional psychology through responsible standards of accountability and review procedures, by effective advocacy before health insurance organizations, and by inaugurating low-cost services at psychological service centers. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions, 1982.

1916 — Robert M. Gagné was born. Gagné has applied the experimental psychology of learning to the practical problem of effective instruction. His book The Conditions of Learning was a landmark volume that presented a comprehensive typology of learning. APA Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology, 1982.

1959 — The state of Michigan enacted its original psychologist certification law, Act 257 of the Public Acts of 1959.

1962 — Endel Tulving's article "Subjective Organization in Free Recall of 'Unrelated' Words" was published in Psychological Review.

1985 — The APA Board of Directors signed a contract with the Eldan Company of Toluca Lake, California, to develop and produce a series of hour-long television shows based on the magazine Psychology Today, owned at that time by the APA.


Copyright © 1995, American Psychological Association. Web version by permission. Source: Street, W. R. (1994). A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The American Psychological Association and Central Washington University have supported the development of the APA Historical Database.

Choose Another Day
How to Cite This Page in APA Style