1877 — Robert Ogden was born. Ogden, an early Gestaltist, was instrumental in disseminating Gestalt ideas in the United States and in inviting influential German Gestalt psychologists to come to the United States. His book, Psychology and Education (1926), was the first Gestalt-oriented book by an American psychologist.
1909 — The Child Conference for Research and Welfare began at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. The conference was arranged by G. Stanley Hall as part of the university's 20th anniversary celebration. Sigmund Freud had been invited to deliver addresses on this occasion, but he declined. A second invitation, to deliver lectures in September 1909, was accepted.
1983 — In Barefoot v. Estelle, a convicted murderer claimed that psychiatrists as a class were incompetent to judge his future dangerousness. On this day the U.S. Supreme Court delivered a decision denying this claim.
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