1871 — William McDougall was born. McDougall developed theories of social and personality psychology that were based on instincts. These ideas, which he called hormic psychology, were promoted in his influential book, Introduction to Social Psychology (1908). He was a founder of the British Psychological Society and the British Journal of Psychology.
1908 — Donald Marquis was born. Marquis's early research was in conditioning and learning. He took up applied work in industrial and organizational settings after studying personnel problems in World War II. His Conditioning and Learning (1940), written with Ernest Hilgard, was a classic textbook. APA President, 1948.
1916 — Leopold Bellak was born. Bellak's research has concentrated on the clinical use of the Thematic Apperception Test and on ego functions in patients with schizophrenia. He promoted the formation of the Schizophrenia Research Center at the National Institute of Mental Health. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions, 1992.
1920 — Leta Stetter Hollingworth's book Psychology of Subnormal Children was published. The book was a standard text and reference source in the field for many years.
1920 — Sigmund Freud's book General Introduction to Psychoanalysis was published in the United States.
1944 — Sandra Lipsitz Bem was born. Bem is noted for her work in the independent nature of masculine and feminine gender roles and the measurement and behavioral correlates of androgyny. She has also investigated gender bias in public media and gender schema in self-perception and interpersonal perception. APA Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology, 1976.
1961 — The psychologist certification law of the state of Florida was signed by the governor. This statute was actually the second passed by the legislature. The first had been declared unconstitutional by the state's supreme court on May 6, 1961.
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