1876 — Robert M. Yerkes was born. With John D. Dodson, Yerkes developed the Yerkes-Dodson law relating motivation to performance. Mainly a comparative psychologist, Yerkes studied chimpanzee behavior. As APA president in 1917, Yerkes was instrumental in shaping the response of psychologists to the demands of World War I, the first large-scale program of applied psychology.
1880 — Harry L. Hollingworth was born. Hollingworth viewed himself as a systematic psychologist but is best remembered for his applied studies, including experiments on the effects of caffeine, used by Coca-Cola to defend against a federal lawsuit in 1939, and for studies of shell shock in World War I soldiers. APA President, 1927.
1892 — Paul Thomas Young was born. Young studied hedonic processes in behavior and endeavored to give objective reference and experimental validity to the concept. His research on preference showed the effect of experience in modifying acceptability. APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1965.
1897 — Katharine M. Banham was born. Banham's research focused on the social and emotional development of children and the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. She was the first woman to earn the PhD at the University of Montreal and the first woman on the psychology faculty at Duke University, where she was a cofounder of the clinical psychology program.
1910 — Ruth Hartley was born. Best known for her research in personality development and child psychology, Hartley also touched on educational psychology, the psychology of social roles, individual-group interactions, and feminist issues.
1912 — Sigmund Freud visited Ludwig Binswanger in Kreutzlingen, Switzerland. Carl Jung was 40 miles (64 km) away in Zurich, but Freud and Jung did not arrange to meet. In later letters, Jung referred to this as Freud's "Kreutzlingen gesture," taking it as an unconsciously motivated insult. The incident was the beginning of the end of the Freud-Jung relationship.
1913 — John L. Kennedy was born. Kennedy was known for his work in applied experimental psychology and human engineering. With the Rand Corporation, he worked on designing air defense systems that included human factors considerations, using simulation as a comprehensive research tool.
1918 — Irving L. Janis was born. Janis was a social psychologist best known for his contributions of classic works on communication and persuasion, military morale, psychological stress, fear-arousing persuasion, decision making, and the pattern of group decision processes he termed groupthink. APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1981.
1927 — Endel Tulving was born. Tulving's research has focused on memory encoding and retrieval. Important early work described the organization of freely recalled words. He has identified episodic, semantic, and procedural types of memory and corresponding autonoetic, noetic, and anoetic varieties of consciousness. APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, 1983.
1954 — Robert Woodworth and Harold Schlosberg's classic text Experimental Psychology was published.
1971 — The first annual symposium of the Jean Piaget Society was held at Temple University. The 700 charter members of the organization were addressed by Piaget and Barbel Inhelder at the first plenary session. Lois Macomber was the first president of the society.
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