1848 — The New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum opened in Trenton under superintendent H. A. Buttolph. This was the state's first and the nation's 17th public mental institution. The New Jersey asylum was the first to open of many hospitals built after public exposés by mental health reformer Dorothea Dix. Dix regarded this hospital to be her "first-born child," and she died here on July 18, 1887.
1860 — James McKeen Cattell was born. He studied mental testing and individual differences. Cattell edited American Men of Science, Psychological Review, and the journal Science. He was the first American professor of psychology, founded the psychology laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania in 1888, founded the Psychological Corporation, and was APA President in 1895.
1884 — Truman Lee Kelley was born. Kelly was a statistician and psychometrician with special interests in factor analysis, canonical correlation, multifactor theories of intelligence, and educational testing.
1886 — Leta Stetter Hollingworth was born. Hollingworth studied the nature, assessment, and treatment of mental retardation and giftedness in children. Her book The Psychology of Subnormal Children (1920) is an early classic in that field. Hollingworth was largely responsible for founding the American Association of Clinical Psychologists (1917).
1897 — Heinrich Klüver was born. Klüver's studies of eidetic imagery and the effects of mescal were the first on these topics. Other studies investigated stimulus equivalence and the link between aggressiveness, hypersexuality, and the anterior temporal lobe (the Klüver-Bucy syndrome). American Psychological Foundation Gold Medal, 1965.
1913 — After the defections of Alfred Adler, Wilhelm Stekel, and Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud formed a secret committee of loyal followers (Karl Abraham, Otto Rank, Ernest Jones, Hanns Sachs, and S ndor Ferenczi). Their first meeting was on this day. Freud gave each member a Greek intaglio to mount in a gold ring as a sign of membership.
1914 — The first convention of the Societies of Mental Hygiene was held at Johns Hopkins University. These local organizations later became affiliates of the National Mental Health Association.
1970 — Sex behavior researchers William Masters and Virginia Johnson appeared on the cover of Time magazine.
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