1878 — Lillian Moller Gilbreth was born. Gilbreth was an industrial psychologist who pioneered the use of time-and-motion studies to improve industrial productivity. The book Cheaper by the Dozen (1948), written by a son and daughter, popularized Gilbreth's efficiency-oriented family life. Gilbreth is the only psychologist ever to have appeared on a U.S. postage stamp (1984).
1884 — Clark Leonard Hull was born. Hull is most frequently identified with his hypothetico-deductive learning theory, an attempt at a mathematically rigorous explanation of the causes of behavior, but his work in aptitude testing, hypnosis and suggestibility, and concept acquisition was also influential. APA President, 1936.
1892 — William J. Crozier was born. Crozier's work with many species of lower animals led to explanations of behavior based on tropisms, or innate orienting responses.
1918 — Stephen B. Withey was born. Withey's work applied social psychological research methods to major social problems such as international relations, effects of television and other mass media, and public attitudes toward big business, science, and advanced technology.
1928 — The American Foundation for Mental Hygiene was incorporated in Delaware. Its function was to receive and disburse funds for projects of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, headed by mental health reformer Clifford W. Beers. The first major project was the International Congress on Mental Hygiene, planned for April 1929. The congress actually was delayed until May 1930.
1963 — Groundbreaking ceremonies were held for the APA's newest headquarters building at 1200 17th Street, NW, Washington, DC. Charles Osgood, president of the APA, conducted the ceremonies.
1967 — Richard F. Thompson's Foundations of Physiological Psychology was published. The book was a popular adoption in college courses.
1977 — The first public hearings of President Carter's President's Commission on Mental Health were held in Philadelphia. Rosalynn Carter was present and continued to support strongly the work of the commission.
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