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APA Historical Database: Selected Entries


On March 30:

1831 — The Salpêtrière asylum of Paris began a program of treatment of "idiotic" women.

1863 — Mary Whiton Calkins was born. Calkins invented the paired-associate method of measuring learning and memory. She promoted psychology as the science of the self for most of her career. Calkins founded the psychology laboratory at Wellesley College in 1891, the 13th to be founded in the United States. APA President, 1905.

1876 — Clifford Whittingham Beers was born. A former mental patient, Beers was the founder of the mental hygiene movement. His popular book, A Mind That Found Itself: An Autobiography, described the inhumane treatment he had received in the asylums of the day. The mental hygiene movement emphasized community programs of prevention, early diagnosis, and humane treatment.

1882 — Melanie Klein was born. Klein was an important child psychoanalyst who developed the technique of play therapy.

1896 — The term psychoanalysis was first used in a paper by Sigmund Freud, published in French. The term was used in a paper published in Germany on May 15, 1896. Freud sent both papers to their publishers on the same day, February 5, 1896.

1908 — Freud had his only conversation with with "Little Hans." Hans's phobic reactions to horses led Freud to his theories of infantile sexuality and dreams as wish fulfillment. Hans was actually Herbert Graf, who later became an opera producer and director.

1908 — Howard Emery Wright was born. Wright's work in social psychology dealt with attitude measurement, effects of culture, and guidance techniques. Wright held many university administrative positions, finishing his career as acting chancellor of the University of Maryland.

1910 — The International Psychoanalytic Association was formed in Nuremberg, Germany, with Carl Jung as the first president. S ndor Ferenczi gave the keynote address, "On the Organization of the Psychoanalytic Movement."

1934 — The first official meeting of the Pennsylvania Association of Clinical Psychologists (PACP) was held in Harrisburg at the Hotel Harrisburger. Lightner Witmer, of the University of Pennsylvania, was elected president by the 31 psychologists in attendance and Mary Vanuxem, of Laurelton State Village, was elected vice president. In 1946, the PACP became the Pennsylvania Psychological Association.

1945 — Stephen F. Morin was born. Morin has been a leader in focusing psychological science and practice on gay and lesbian issues and problems associated with AIDS. He was the first chair of the Association of Lesbian and Gay Psychologists and the first president of APA Division 44 (Lesbian and Gay Issues). APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions, 1988.


Copyright © 1995, American Psychological Association. Web version by permission. Source: Street, W. R. (1994). A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The American Psychological Association and Central Washington University have supported the development of the APA Historical Database.

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