Street, W. R. (1994). A Chronology of Noteworthy Events in American Psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

23 Oct 1247 The priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem, later to become Bethlehem Hospital, was founded on land donated by Simon FitzMary at Bishopsgate Without, London. This original site is now located under the the Liverpool Street railway station. Bethlehem Hospital, or "Bedlam," later became notorious for its neglectful care of people with mental illness. The priory was first used to house "distracted persons" in around the year 1377.

15 Oct 1346 The impoverished priory and order of St. Mary of Bethlehem, later to become Bethlehem Hospital ("Bedlam"), was taken under the patronage and protection of Richard Lacer, mayor of London, and the citizens of London. The act brought to an end a century of "disaster, poverty, and failure."

1 Nov 1478 Pope Sixtus IV issued a papal bull extending the power of the Inquisition to Spain. The Inquisition, established in some countries in the thirteenth century, was responsible for the torture and execution of many people with mental illness. In Seville, inquisitors Miguel de Morcillo and Juan de San Martin burned about 500 people in three years. In Aragon, inquisitor Thomas de Torquemada was said to be especially ruthless in the pursuit of deviance.

19 May 1487 Heinrich Kramer and Johann Sprenger's Malleus Maleficarum (The Witch Hammer), the Inquisition's guide to the diagnosis, behavior, trial, and punishment of witches, was endorsed by the Faculty of Theology at the University of Cologne. The Malleus went through 19 editions in the next 2 centuries and provided a basis for gruesome tortures of people with deviant behavior.

27 Dec 1546 King Henry VIII presented a deed of covenant granting Bethlehem Hospital to the city of London. The transfer was completed on January 13, 1547, when Henry VIII signed the letter patent which officially ratified the deed. The hospital was founded as a priory in 1247, taken under the care of the city of London in 1346, and seized by Edward III in 1375.

23 May 1586 Timothie Bright, the physician of St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, wrote the forward to his book, the Treatise on Melancholy. Bright's book was the first book in the English language on the subject of mental illness. Some of the phrases Bright used in his descriptions of disordered behavior appeared later in the plays of William Shakespeare.

11 Nov 1650 Puritan leader Roger Williams made an appeal to the town council of Providence, Rhode Island, urging the council to provide for the care of a "distracted woman," named Mrs. Weston. This was one of the earliest recorded references to the public care of people with mental illness in America.

21 Apr 1657 English diarist John Evelyn recorded the details of his visit to Bethlehem Hospital in London. He saw "several poor miserable creatures in chains; one of them was mad with making verses." On April 18, 1678, Evelyn visited "new Bedlam hospital, magnificently built, and most sweetly placed in Moorfields since the dreadful fire in London." The public was allowed to tour Bethlehem hospital as a means of education and entertainment.

23 Nov 1667 The use of blood transfusion as a psychiatric treatment was attempted in London and was witnessed by members of the Royal Society. The recipient was a patient at the Bethlem Royal Hospital and the donor was a sheep. The first recorded example of blood transfusion therapy occurred earlier in 1667 in France, where the recipient was suffering from melancholy and the donor was a calf.

24 Jan 1674 The British court passed a resolution to move Bethlehem Hospital from its original location at Bishopsgate, London, to the city moat at the edge of Moorfields, later to become Finsbury Circus. The hospital survived the fire of London in 1666 but the surrounding new construction that followed the fire made its decrepit condition obvious. The new hospital was commonly called "new Bedlam."

29 Feb 1692 Sarah Osborne, Sarah Good, and Tituba, a slave woman, were arrested in Salem Township (now Danvers), Massachusetts, charged with inflicting suffering on four girls through the use of witchcraft. Accusations of witchcraft spread and 20 accused witches were eventually executed between June 10 and September 22, 1692. The Salem witchcraft trials have been the subject of commentary by abnormal and social psychologists.

24 Jan 1732 William Tuke was born. Tuke was head of the Quaker family that founded the York Retreat in 1792. The York Retreat, located in a rural setting, provided humane institutional care of people with mental illness. Its reduced use of restraints and confinement, and therapeutic use of occupational tasks, especially farming chores, were duplicated in scores of later institutions.

25 Jun 1735 The first copies of engravings of Hogarth's "A Rake's Progress" (Scene VIII) were published. The well-known scene depicts patients at London's Bethlehem Hospital ("Bedlam") and is part of a artistic moral lesson on the consequences of a life of sin and debauchery.

14 Jul 1736 A Norwegian royal ordinance providing for care of people with mental illness was issued. It stated that main hospitals "should furnish one or two rooms, where one could place 'poor deteriorated persons' in such a manner that they could not escape easily."

24 Dec 1745 Benjamin Rush was born. Rush was the first American psychiatrist. His Medical Enquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind (1812) was the first American textbook on the subject. He advocated humane treatment and occupational therapy, although his treatments also included spinning, ducking in cold water, bleeding, purgatives, and strapping in chairs. Rush was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and was director of the Philadelphia mint.

6 May 1751 The first hospital in the American colonies to provide treatment for people with mental illness was established by the Pennsylvania Assembly. Benjamin Franklin drew up the petition to the assembly. The Pennsylvania Hospital began in 1752 in a private home until its building was completed in 1756. In the early years of the hospital, patients were chained to the walls of their basement cells. Bleeding and purging were common treatments.

11 May 1751 The colonial governor of Pennsylvania approved the charter of the Pennsylvania Hospital, a proposed hospital to include treatment of people with mental illness. The first patient was received on February 11, 1752, at the hospital's temporary quarters in the Judge Kinsey mansion on Market Street in Philadelphia. On December 17, 1756, the Pine Street Hospital in Philadelphia was opened and accepted both mentally ill and general medical patients.

16 May 1751 Johann Hermann Pfingsten was born. Pfingsten was the primary editor of the first journal with the word psychology in its title, the Repertorium für Physiologie und Psychologie nach ihrem Umfange und ihrer Verbindung, published in 1784-1786. Pfingsten was a generalist with interests in minerology, mining, chemistry, botany, pharmacology, medicine, physiology, and psychology.

20 Feb 1759 Vincenzo Chiarugi was born in Empoli, near Florence, Italy. At the age of 27, Chiarugi was appointed by the Grand Duke Leopoldo I to plan the new hospital of St. Bonifacio, which would become one of the first sites of humane care of people with mental illness. St. Bonifacio opened in 1788, with Chiarugi as director.

27 May 1766 Franz Anton Mesmer published his thesis titled "De Planetarum Influxu," in which he proposed a relationship between the magnetic forces of the planets and the human nervous system. Mesmer earned his MD degree from the University of Vienna in this same year and went on to develop a practice based on the manipulation of magnetic forces, or "Mesmerism."

11 Nov 1770 Public admission to the wards at Bethlehem Hospital, London, was discontinued. For at least 200 years, visits to "Bedlam" had been a common entertainment for Londoners, but the practice became more restricted after 1766. After 1770, admission was by ticket only and legitimate visitors were accompanied by an attendant. These reforms were probably brought about by Dr. John Munro.

13 Jun 1771 A royal charter established New York Hospital. The cornerstone was laid on July 27, 1773. Although New York Hospital was a general medical facility, people with mental illness were admitted for treatment. These services and ward space were moved into a separate building in 1808 and became known as the Bloomingdale Asylum at the time of a second move in 1821.

25 Oct 1774 The Society of the New York Hospital authorized use of the cellar of the north wing of its proposed hospital building to be used "for wards or cells for the reception of lunatics." This facility was replaced in 1808 by a new building, the New York Lunatic Asylum, which became the Bloomingdale Asylum in 1821. The modern descendent of these facilities is the Westchester division of the New York Hospital in White Plains.

19 Oct 1775 A Swedish royal ordinance directed that "Crown hospitals," which operated primarily as homeless shelters, would have as their sole mission the care of people with mental illness and seriously ill people. This was the first official provision for mental hospitals in Sweden.

18 Jun 1782 The last person in Europe executed for witchcraft was beheaded in Glarus, Switzerland, almost 300 years after Heinrich Kramer and Johann Sprenger's Malleus Maleficarum (The Witch Hammer) was endorsed by the Faculty of Theology at the University of Cologne and 10 years before Pinel's reforms in mental treatment at the Bic tre asylum . The Malleus attributed abnormal behavior to satanic forces and became the textbook of the Inquisition.

18 Aug 1785 By order of Grand Duke Leopold I of Tuscany, Vincenzo Chiarugi was placed in charge of planning St. Bonifacio Hospital. In 1774, Leopold issued the "leggi sui pazzi" (law on the insane), Europe's first statue providing care for people with mental illness. The first patients were admitted to St. Bonifacio in 1788. Chiarugi was among the first in the world to institute humane standards of care.

19 Mar 1788 The first patients were admitted to the new St. Bonifacio Hospital in Florence, Italy. St. Bonifacio was built by the Grand Duke Leopoldo I, whose "leggi sui pazzi" (law on the insane) (1774) was Europe's first statue providing care for people with mental illness. St. Bonifacio's director, Vincenzo Chiarugi, was among the first to institute humane standards of care.

19 May 1788 Pursuant to a 1785 decree by the Grand Duke Peter Leopold, about 120 mentally ill patients were moved into the Hospital of Bonifazio, in Tuscany, Italy. The patients were subjects of the first public ordinance providing for care of the mentally ill (1774) and were under the supervision of hospital director Vincenzo Chiarugi. Chiarugi instituted some of the world's first humane standards of care of mentally ill people.

27 Dec 1791 The state of Maryland passed a law regarding treatment of two people with mental illness, Mary Brown and her daughter, Eleanor Love. The law recognized that Brown and Love were "in a state of lunacy," and appropriated public funds for their care. Before the establishment of state mental hospitals, it was common for state laws to refer people with mental illness to almshouses, jails, the care of relatives, or to provide support on a case-by-case basis.

21 Nov 1794 The legislature of New Jersey passed "An Act for Supporting Idiots and Lunatics and Preserving Their Estates." This early public policy regarding care of people with mental illness was more concerned with care of their property than with care of the individuals themselves.

11 Dec 1794 Philippe Pinel read his "Memoir on Madness" to the Society for Natural History in Paris. The report described Pinel's humane methods of treatment ("an intelligent mixture of affability and firmness") and appealed to the Revolutionary government to build asylums appropriate to these enlightened practices.

1 Jan 1796 The first executive committee meeting of The Retreat, at York, England, was held. The York Retreat was founded in 1792 by the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) at the urging of William Tuke. The first patients were admitted in 1796. Tuke, his son John, Thomas Priestman, Timothy White, and John Fothergill served on the executive committee. The Retreat was one of the first institutions to provide humane treatment for people with mental illness.

13 Jun 1796 The first physician, Thomas Fowler, was hired at The Retreat, in York, England. The first patients, Mary Holt, Rachel Row, and John Ellis, had arrived earlier in the month. William Tuke's York Retreat was one of the first mental institutions to use provide outdoor tasks, good nutrition, and humane treatment instead of the use of mechanical restraints and confinement.

27 Feb 1798 The state of Massachusetts passed an early law providing for the involuntary commitment of any person "lunatick and so furiously mad as to render it dangerous to the peace or to the safety of the good people for such lunatick person to go at large." Earlier Massachusetts laws addressed guardianship (1676, 1694, 1784) and the determination of competence (1736) of people with mental illness.

22 Oct 1807 Magnus Huss, a Swedish medical clinician, was born. Huss was the first to recognize the syndrome of chronic alcoholism. His paper, "Alcoholismus chronicus eller kronisk alkoholssjukdom," was published in 1849.

15 Jul 1808 The New York Lunatic Asylum opened. This early mental hospital was a branch of New York Hospital, created when the need for a mental treatment facilities outgrew the main hospital building. In 1821, the institution changed its name to the Bloomingdale Asylum and moved to another new building.

31 Jul 1809 Thomas S. Kirkbride was born. Kirkbride was one of the founders of the American Psychiatric Association (1844). His book On the Construction, Organization, and General Arrangements of Hospitals for the Insane (1847) guided the design of progressive mental institutions for decades.

18 Apr 1812 The foundation stone for the third location of Bethlehem Hospital, London, was laid. The hospital was moved from its Moorfields location to new structures at St. George's Fields. The first patients were moved to the new location on August 24, 1815.

15 May 1817 The first private mental hospital in the United States, the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was opened for the admission of patients. Isaac Bonsall was the hospital's first superintendent. During the first year, 19 patients were admitted. The facility's name is now Friends Hospital.

30 Jun 1817 The cornerstone was laid for the Fayette Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. The Fayette Hospital was supported by a citizen's group led by Andrew McCalla, but lack of funds left the building unoccupied until 1822, when it was purchased by the state of Kentucky and opened as the Eastern Lunatic Asylum on May 1, 1824. If the founding date of 1817 is used, the hospital is the second or third state mental hospital in the United States.

6 Oct 1818 The Charlestown branch of Massachusetts General Hospital, later named the McLean Asylum for the Insane, admitted its first patient, a young man believed by his father to be possessed by a devil. This early facility for people with mental illness also established one of the first American laboratories of experimental psychology and supported an active research program. Rufus Wyman was the first superintendent.

22 Jan 1821 The Ohio legislature authorized construction of the state's first mental hospital. Located in Cincinnati, the Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Ohio was ready to admit patients on January 26, 1824. In 1838, the hospital was sold and renamed the Commercial Hospital of Cincinnati. Its patients with mental illness were transferred to the new Ohio Lunatic Asylum in Columbus.

16 Jun 1821 The Bloomingdale Asylum, previously known as the New York Lunatic Asylum, opened for patients. In 1894, the Bloomingdale Asylum became the Westchester Division of New York State Hospital and moved to White Plains.

21 Dec 1821 The first state mental hospital in South Carolina was authorized by an act of the state legislature. The mental hospital was located on four acres of land in Columbia, South Carolina and admitted its first patient in December 1828. On December 19, 1848, the legislature passed an act to "admit, as subjects of the lunatic asylum, persons of color, being idiots, lunatics, or epileptics," thus desegregating the institution.

2 May 1822 The Fellows of the Connecticut State Medical Society voted to petition the state legislature for an act of incorporation and funding of a public institution for the care of people with mental illness. The legislature did so and, on January 27, 1823, the Society voted to locate the facility at Hartford, on land owned by Ira Todd. The Connecticut Retreat for the Insane, later named the Hartford Retreat, opened for the admission of patients in 1824.

21 Nov 1823 The first lectures in Britain on mental illness were begun by Sir Alexander Morison. Morison delivered a series of nine lectures to an audience of six people at Edinburgh and based his lectures on several visits to Jean Esquirol in Paris. Morison became physician to Bethlehem Hospital in 1835 and remained there until 1853. His lecture series was delivered in Edinburgh, and later in London, for 30 years.

1 Apr 1824 The Connecticut Retreat for the Insane opened at Hartford for the reception of patients. The Connecticut Retreat's name and humane philosophy of treatment were patterned after those of the York Retreat, in England. The first superintendent of the Hartford Retreat was Eli Todd. The institution's name has changed several times but was called the Hartford Retreat for many years. It is now named the Institute of Living.

1 May 1824 The Eastern Lunatic Asylum, now Eastern State Hospital, opened in Lexington, Kentucky. The hospital was established in a building called the Fayette Hospital, begun by charitable citizens on June 30, 1817 and completed after purchase by the state in 1822. The first patient to be admitted was a 21-year-old African American woman named Charity.

20 Feb 1826 In a speech before the French Academy of Sciences, a Dr. Desgenettes demanded that scientists should not even consider the idea of investigating "animal magnetism" because "it came from Germany." Conventional medical science resisted investigating how physical symptoms could proceed from emotional causes until Jean-Martin Charcot presented a paper on hypnotism to the French Academy in 1882.

19 Apr 1827 Daniel Hack Tuke was born. Tuke was the great-grandson of William Tuke, the founder of the York Retreat, one of the first centers of humane treatment of people with mental illness. Hack Tuke wrote extensively on mental illness, including an exhaustive history of British psychiatry, a field study of psychiatric institutions and methods in the United States and Canada, and the comprehensive Dictionary of Psychological Medicine (1892).

19 Oct 1828 The first clear relationship between epilepsy and a local cortical lesion was provided by Richard Bright, a physician at Guy's Hospital, London. While Bright provided many cases as evidence, his conclusion was not generally accepted until the works of Hughlings Jackson were published, beginning in 1863.

12 Jan 1833 The State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, Massachusetts, now named Worcester State Hospital, was opened for the admission of patients. The first patient was received on January 19, 1833. Samuel B. Woodward was the hospital's first superintendent and held that office until 1846.

7 Oct 1833 French physician Joseph-Honor -Simon Beau began daily observations of his patients in a study of the relation between meteorological events and epileptic seizures. His last observations were made on November 20, 1833 and he concluded that epilepsy was unrelated to the weather. Other studies of this era showed that epilepsy was also unrelated to phases of the moon.

4 Nov 1834 In his annual address to the state legislature, Governor Wilson Lumpkin of Georgia suggested establishing a state mental hospital. No action was taken until 1837, when a building appropriation was passed. The state's first mental hospital, the Georgia State Sanatarium at Milledgeville, was opened in December 1842. The hospital was later named Milledgeville State Hospital and is now Central State Hospital.

22 Jan 1836 The cornerstone of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane was laid, at the hospital's site in West Philadelphia. The building cost $265,000 to complete and opened for patients on January 1, 1841. The first patients were transferred from the Pine Street Hospital, whose history originated in 1751.

12 Dec 1836 The first patient was admitted to the Vermont Asylum for the Insane in Brattleboro, Vermont. This early mental hospital, the 11th in the United States, was founded on September 28, 1835 at the first meeting of its board of trustees. William H. Rockwell was the first superintendent. Gifts of land allowed access to outdoor activities for the patients and summer retreats began in 1882. The hospital's name was changed to the Brattleboro Retreat on May 27, 1893.

20 Feb 1838 The Arkansas legislature passed a law regarding the disposition of people with mental illness. The law extended responsibility for care to the third and fourth generations of the affected person's family. If no family member could be found to care for the ill person, the law provided for confinement in a "suitable place," usually a county jail. These procedures were not uncommon at the time and led to the reforms of the mid-19th century.

30 Nov 1838 The Ohio Lunatic Asylum, in Columbus, was opened for patients. The cornerstone for the building was laid by convict laborers from the Ohio Penitentiary on April 20, 1837. The first patients to be admitted were former patients of the Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Cincinnati, the state's first mental hospital. The Cincinnati hospital was sold to private owners earlier in 1838.

21 Sep 1839 Psychiatrist John Conolly abolished the use of restraints at the Hanwell County Asylum of Middlesex, England. While humanitarian reforms in mental treatment were well under way by this time, eliminating mechanical restraints of all kinds was a radical and controversial move that made Conolly a prominent figure. His major work, The Treatment of the Insane Without Mechanical Restraints (1856) further promoted the non-restraint movement.

1 Mar 1840 The first public mental health care facility in Tennessee was opened. The institution was a small stone building located near Nashville. In November 1847, the facility was visited by mental hospital reformer Dorothea Dix, who reported its deplorable condition to the state legislature. A new hospital was constructed near Nashville and opened in 1852 and was named Central State Hospital for the Insane.

14 Oct 1840 The Maine Insane Hospital, now named Augusta Mental Health Institute, opened in Augusta, Maine for the admission of patients. The hospital's first superintendent was Cyrus Knapp and Isaac Ray served as superintendent from 1841 to 1844. By December 31, 1840, 30 patients were admitted. Treatment methods in that first year included prayer and Bible reading, farm labor, good food and clean living conditions.

16 Oct 1843 The New York State Lunatic Asylum (later named Utica State Hospital), authorized by the New York legislature on March 30, 1836, was opened for the admission of patients. The first superintendent was Amariah Brigham. A printing shop was established for the purpose of occupational therapy and, in 1844, it published the American Journal of Insanity, the world's first journal devoted to mental illness, with Brigham as editor.

12 Jan 1844 Dorothea Dix submitted a memorial to the New York state legislature, the second of many such documents in her international crusade for improved treatment conditions for people with mental illness. The first was presented to the Massachusetts legislature in 1843. Dix documented widespread filthy, brutalizing, and degrading conditions. Her public exposure of these practices resulted in new facilities and more humane care in many states.

10 Apr 1844 Dorothea Dix began a series of articles in the Providence Journal, describing the neglectful care of people with mental illness in Rhode Island. These articles followed the format of thorough research and graphic descriptions of individual cases Dix had established in dealing with the Massachusetts legislature. Rhode Island's Butler Hospital for the Insane resulted from Dix's efforts and the philanthropy of industrialist Cyrus Butler.

3 Jan 1845 Reform activist Dorothea Dix presented a memorial to the New Jersey legislature, describing the state's treatment of people with mental illness. The state had no public mental hospitals and patients were housed in county jails, private homes and the basements of public buildings. The New Jersey State Hospital at Trenton resulted from Dix's determined efforts.

3 Feb 1845 Dorothea Dix presented a 55-page memorial to the Pennsylvania state legislature. The document described Dix's 2-year survey of Pennsylvania's treatment of people with mental illness. She found them in jails, alms-houses, and cellars of public buildings. On April 14, 1845, Governor Shunk signed legislation creating the Pennsylvania State Lunatic Hospital, now Harrisburg State Hospital, which was begun in 1849.

25 Mar 1845 The New Jersey state legislature authorized construction of the state's first mental hospital, the New Jersey Lunatic Asylum at Trenton. The legislative action was largely due to the efforts of mental health care reformer Dorothea Dix. The hospital was the first to be built on the "Kirkbride plan" for hospital construction. When the hospital admitted its first patients on May 15, 1848, it was the first hospital promoted by Dix to open.

13 Jan 1846 The first legislation to provide for separate treatment of people with mental retardation was introduced in the New York State Senate by E. F. Backus. Backus introduced a resolution calling for purchase of land and construction of buildings. It was not until 1851 that an experimental school was established in Albany. It proved so successful that a permanent state facility was established in 1854.

5 Mar 1847 The governor of Louisiana approved an act that established the Louisiana Insane Asylum in Jackson, the state's first state mental hospital. The hospital opened in mid-November, 1848 when 85 patients were transferred from Charity Hospital in New Orleans. James King was the first superintendent of the institution. The hospital is now named East Louisiana State Hospital. On July 1, 1910, the state legislature added a ward for mentally ill criminals.

1 May 1847 An early Canadian facility for the care of mentally ill people was opened in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island.

1 Dec 1847 The Butler Hospital for the Insane was opened in Providence, Rhode Island. Butler Hospital was Rhode Island's first hospital exclusively for mentally ill patients. It was originally endowed by the will of Nicholas Brown, dated March 3, 1843. Mentally ill patients were also cared for at the Dexter Hospital for the Insane, a portion of a general hospital for the poor, founded in 1828. Isaac Ray planned the hospital and was its superintendent until 1867.

15 Jan 1848 An act of the Missouri state legislature established the state's first mental hospital, at Fulton, Missouri. The hospital was founded with the prosaic name State Hospital No. 1 and is now named Fulton State Hospital. The first patients were admitted early in 1852.

15 May 1848 Carl Wernicke was born. Wernicke gained fame with his work on the neurology of aphasia, which he published in 1874 at the age of 26. Wernicke's aphasia, as one form came to be known, was attributed to temporal lobe damage, resulting in impairment in speech comprehension and, by extension, speech production. The critical area of the temporal lobe is now known as Wernicke's area.

17 Aug 1848 The Norwegian parliament passed the Act for the Treatment and Care of the Mentally Ill, Norway's first parliamentary law relating to mental health. The act was the work of Fredrik Holst and Herman Major. It was followed by the establishment of Norway's first psychiatric hospital, the Gaustad Asylum, in 1855.

21 Nov 1848 The first state mental hospital in Indiana, the Indiana Hospital for the Insane, in Indianapolis, admitted its first patients. The legislature provided land for the hospital on January 13, 1845 and provided building funds on January 19, 1846. The name of the institution was changed on March 3, 1927 to Central State Hospital. This hospital closed in 1994 and patients were transferred to Larue D. Carter Memorial Hospital, also in Indianapolis.

7 Apr 1849 Pennsylvania Governor William F. Johnson laid the cornerstone of the Pennsylvania State Lunatic Hospital, although preliminary work had begun in 1848. The hospital's board of trustees first met on February 14, 1851, and elected John Curwen to be superintendent, with a salary of $1500 per year. The first patient, Elizabeth B. of Londonderry, was admitted on October 6, 1851. The hospital is now named Harrisburg State Hospital.

21 Jan 1850 Mental health activist Dorothea Dix presented a memorial to the legislature of Nova Scotia, urging the construction of a public mental hospital. While Dix submitted similar documents to the legislatures of many U.S. states, this appears to be the only appeal to a Canadian province. Dix took an active part in selecting the site in Halifax of the resulting hospital.

3 Nov 1851 The Illinois State Hospital for the Insane, the first state mental hospital in Illinois, opened for the admission of patients. J. M. Higgens was the first medical superintendent. The hospital resulted from an 1847 expos of neglectful treatment conditions presented to the state legislature by mental health care crusader Dorothea Dix. The name of the hospital was later changed to Jacksonville State Hospital.

9 Feb 1852 Following the urging of Dorothea Dix in 1849, the Alabama state legislature passed a bill "To Establish a Hospital for Insane Persons in Alabama." Construction on the state's first mental hospital, Alabama Insane Hospital, began in Tuscaloosa later in the year. The hospital came to be known as Bryce Hospital after a second branch of the Alabama Insane Hospital, Mt. Vernon Hospital, opened in 1901 for the care of African-American patients.

1 Mar 1852 Central Hospital for the Insane was opened near Nashville, Tennessee. Central Hospital was commissioned by the state legislature on February 5, 1848, following an appeal by mental health activist Dorothea Dix, who had visited the state's existing inadequate facilities. William A. Cheatham was the hospital's first superintendent.

17 May 1853 The state of California enacted its first law regarding mental illness. It described procedures for the involuntary confinement of people with mental illness and provided state funding for the care of indigent patients. California's first state mental hospital was the Insane Asylum of California, later named Stockton State Hospital, which opened in 1853 with W. T. Brown as its medical superintendent.

28 May 1853 Sheppard's Asylum, an early private mental hospital, was founded by Moses Sheppard and others. Actual construction outside Baltimore, Maryland, was delayed by restricted funds and the Civil War until groundbreaking on May 25, 1862. The first patient, a 46-year-old woman diagnosed with "dementia," was admitted on December 6, 1891. In 1898, the hospital's name was changed to the Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital to recognize a major benefactor.

15 Nov 1853 The Asylum Journal of Mental Science, the principal British psychiatric journal, first appeared, under the editorship of Sir John Bucknill. The title was later changed to the Journal of Mental Science.

13 Apr 1855 The New York state law established the New York State Lunatic Asylum for Insane Convicts, the world's first mental hospital for criminal patients, separate from a prison or general hospital. The first facility opened in 1859 in Auburn, New York, ajoining a state prison. The hospital moved to a new building in Matteawan in 1892 and was named Matteawan State Hospital.

26 Dec 1858 A facility for the care of people with mental illness was opened in Halifax, Nova Scotia. This was the first facility of its kind in the province. Previous to 1858, people with mental illness had been sent to the "lunatic ward" of the Provincial and City Poor's Asylum or cared for at home.

2 Feb 1859 The New York State Lunatic Asylum for Insane Convicts, the world's first mental hospital for criminal patients, separate from a prison or general hospital, was opened in Auburn, New York. Edward Hall was the hospital's first superintendent. The hospital moved to a new building in Matteawan in 1892, but these facilities were soon overcrowded and a second institution, Dannemora State Hospital, opened on November 15, 1900.

23 Apr 1859 The first patient was admitted to the Michigan Asylum for the Insane. This hospital, located at Kalamazoo, was Michigan's first state mental hospital. It was originally proposed by the governor on February 28, 1848, but was not officially opened until August 29, 1859, under superintendent Edwin H. Van Deusen. The hospital's name was later changed to Kalamazoo State Hospital.

22 Oct 1859 The Lunatic Asylum West of the Alleghany Mountains was opened for patients in Weston, Virginia. The hospital became part of West Virginia at the time of the Civil War and was renamed the West Virginia Hospital for the Insane on November 12, 1863, thus becoming West Virginia's first state mental hospital. The name was later changed to Weston State Hospital and is now Weston Hospital.

14 Jul 1860 The first patient was admitted to Wisconsin's first state mental hospital, in Mendota, three years after the state legislature approved construction of the hospital on March 6, 1857. J. Edwards Lee was the hospital's first superintendent. Although this was a statewide facility, Wisconsin was unique among the states in the nineteenth because of its heavy reliance on a system of small county mental health facilities.

6 Mar 1861 The first state mental hospital in Iowa, Mount Pleasant State Hospital, opened for the receipt of patients. R. J. Patterson was the first superintendent of the institution and was paid a salary of $1600 per year.

11 Mar 1861 The first public mental hospital in Texas, the State Lunatic Asylum in Austin, was formally opened. The institution was supported by proceeds from 100,000 acres of public land. The hospital is now named Austin State Hospital.

10 Dec 1861 Carl Groos was born. Groos was a German psychologist who studied cognitive development and applied his findings to pedagogy. In his best known work, The Mental Life of the Child (1903), he noted that children's questions are of two types, those dealing with causality and those dealing with discrimination and prediction. Groos also stressed the role of play as preparation for adult life.

22 Apr 1863 The first meeting of the National Academy of Sciences began at 11 a.m. in the chapel of New York University. Joseph Henry was elected chairman.

17 Feb 1864 Male criminal patients were separated from patients with mental illness at Bethlehem Hospital, London, by sending the criminal patients to Broadmoor Asylum, constructed in 1863.

8 Apr 1865 The New York state legislature passed the Willard Law, named for psychiatrist Sylvester D. Willard, providing a mental health facility for the care of the "chronic pauper insane." When it opened on October 13, 1869, the Willard Asylum for the Insane near Ovid, on Seneca Lake, was the first U.S. institution for chronically ill patients, reflecting more sophisticated diagnosis and treatment methods. It is now named Willard Psychiatric Center.

17 Jan 1866 English physician William Wythe Gull interviewed the first of several female patients brought to him in conditions of self-induced emaciation. The patient was "5 st. 12 lbs. Height, 5 ft. 5 in." (82 lb or 37 kg, 165 cm). After seeing other similar patients, Gull presented the first thorough paper on anorexia nervosa, or apepsia hysterica, to the British Medical Association on October 24, 1872.

27 Oct 1866 Smith Ely Jelliffe was born. Jelliffe was managing editor of the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease from 1902 to 1945 and of the Psychoanalytic Review from 1913 to 1945. He was actively associated with the early establishment of Freud's views in American medical psychology. He created the term psychosomatic medicine and contributed extensively to this field.

6 Dec 1866 The first state mental hospital in Minnesota, St. Peter State Hospital, opened for patients. The hospital was founded by the legislature on March 2, 1866 and opened in a temporary building in St. Peter until a permanent hospital was built on the outskirts of the town. Before this time, patients under Minnesota state care were treated in hospitals in Iowa and Missouri. The facility is now named St. Peter Regional Treatment Center.

2 Mar 1867 The first U.S. Department of Education was established. Henry Bayard, a leader in educational reform, was the first commissioner under the act.

13 Oct 1869 The Willard Asylum, the first state hospital for patients with chronic mental illness, was opened at Ovid, New York. Other states established similar institutions, hoping to provide low-cost care for chronic patients. The practice of segregating chronic patients into separate hospitals was controversial among psychiatrists, offensive to the relatives of patients, and was abandoned by the turn of the century.

1 Jul 1870 The Burghölzli, a cantonal psychiatric hospital near Zurich, Switzerland, was founded. Bernard von Gudden was the first director. August Forel, Eugen Bleuler, Karl Abraham, Franz Alexander, Ernest Jones, Carl Jung, and A. A. Brill are among those who spent portions of their careers at the Burghölzli.

6 Nov 1870 The Great Eastern Railway Company and the Metropolitan Railway Company purchased the original site of Bethlehem Hospital, London, founded in 1247 and origin of the word "bedlam." Liverpool Station now occupies the site.

7 Nov 1870 The Asylum for the Incurable Insane was opened in Howard, Rhode Island. The state hospital at Howard was the first public institution in Rhode Island for the treatment of mentally ill patients. The first superintendent was Burnham Wardwell, previously the warden of the state penitentiary in Richmond, Virginia. The hospital was later named the State Hospital for Mental Diseases.

19 Aug 1871 The first state mental hospital in Washington State, Western State Hospital, opened for the admission of patients. The hospital was housed in the buildings of Fort Steilacoom, an abandoned U.S. Army base near Tacoma, purchased by the territorial government for $850 on January 15, 1870. Stacy Hemenway was the hospital's first superintendent.

5 Nov 1871 Arthur Rufus Trego Wylie was born. Wylie became the first American psychologist employed in a clinical setting when he was hired as a druggist and psychologist by the Minnesota School for Idiots and Imbiciles in Faribault, Minnesota in 1896. He later became superintendent of the Institution for the Feeble Minded at Grafton, North Dakota.

7 Oct 1872 Spring Grove Hospital, at Catonsville, Maryland was opened for the admission of patients. Spring Grove Hospital was the successor to Maryland's first state mental health care facility, which was a portion of the Maryland Hospital in Baltimore. Maryland Hospital's history began as early as 1794.

24 Oct 1873 English physician William Withey Gull presented the first authentic description of anorexia nervosa in an address before the annual meeting of the British Medical Association, at Oxford. The eating disorder was also called apepsia hysterica and anorexia hysterica at the time. Gull's address was later published in The Lancet of August 8, 1868. Gull interviewed his first patient with anorexia on January, 17, 1866.

28 Sep 1875 The American Neurological Association was founded in New York. L. C. Gray was the association's founding president.

14 Dec 1875 The first meeting of the New England Psychological Society was held at Worcester, Massachusetts. Pliny Earle, superintendent of the Northampton Lunatic Hospital, was elected president. On March 26, 1907, the association's name was changed to the New England Society of Psychiatry.

8 Feb 1879 The state of Colorado enacted legislation establishing the state's first public mental hospital, the Colorado Insane Asylum, now named the Colorado Mental Health Institute Pueblo. The first patients were admitted in October, 1879, to a temporary hospital located in an existing building near Pueblo, Colorado. The permanent hospital building opened on November 20, 1883. P. R. Thombs was medical superintendent of the hospital for its first 20 years.

11 Apr 1879 The first public mental hospital in what would become South Dakota was opened in Yankton. Public patients with mental illness in Dakota Territory were sent to Minnesota's public hospitals until 1878, when overcrowding there and in other nearby states prompted territorial governor William A. Howard to purchase two frame structures in Yankton and move them to a new site, where were joined.

1 Jul 1882 The first state mental hospital in Nevada was ready for occupancy. The hospital was built about two miles east of Reno for the sum of $80,000, appropriated by the legislature in 1881. The location later became the city of Sparks and the institution is now named Nevada Mental Health Institute.

16 Jan 1883 The U.S. Civil Service Commission was established by Congress in the wake of President Garfield's assassination by an office seeker denied a government appointment through the spoils system. The Civil Service Act, or "Pendleton Act," provided for competitive examinations based on "those matters which will fairly test the relative capacity and fitness" of the candidate. Psychological tests of aptitude and achievement were developed to meet this need.

1 Mar 1883 The Arkansas State Lunatic Asylum, in Little Rock, opened for patients, with C. C. Forbes as superintendent. The hospital was mandated by the state legislature on April 19, 1873. Before construction began, the legislature passed a bill to relocate the hospital to Hot Springs. When the governor vetoed the bill, he was burned in effigy in Hot Springs. The hospital was later renamed the State Hospital for Nervous Diseases and is now Arkansas State Hospital.

23 Oct 1883 The first state mental hospital in Oregon, the Oregon State Hospital in Salem, was opened with the admission of 320 patients. The first legislative authorization for the construction of the hospital was passed on October 25, 1880. Before construction of the state mental hospital, Oregonians with mental illness were cared for in a private mental hospital in Portland at state expense.

1 May 1885 The first mental hospital in North Dakota, the North Dakota State Hospital for the Insane, opened in Jamestown. The hospital was authorized by the territorial legislature in 1883 and is now named North Dakota State Hospital.

20 Jul 1885 The first state mental hospital in Utah, Utah State Hospital, was opened for the admission of patients. The hospital was located in Provo, Utah Territory. The institution had been authorized by the territorial government on February 20, 1880. Walter Pike served as the first superintendent.

13 Aug 1886 Victor Horsley described early successful surgery for epilepsy to the Section on Surgery of the British Medical Association. After experimental work on monkeys, Horsley had successfully inferred the site of injuries or tumors in three human cases. Jean Charcot and John Hughlings Jackson were present at the meeting to congratulate Horsley.

10 Jan 1887 The Arizona State Hospital for the Insane, located at Phoenix, opened for the admission of patients. The first superintendent was O. L. Mahoney. Prior to 1887, people in the Territory of Arizona with serious mental illness were cared for at a private hospital in Stockton, California. The institution is now named Arizona State Hospital.

15 May 1889 The Wyoming Territorial Insane Asylum, Wyoming's first public mental hospital, was opened in Evanston. The first patient was admitted 6 days later. William A. Hocker served as superintendent of the institution for its first two years. After Wyoming became a state in 1890, the name of the hospital was renamed Wyoming State Hospital for the Insane (1895) and is now named Wyoming State Hospital.

8 May 1890 Mental hospital-community relations were described in the Richmond (Indiana) Evening Item: "Last night quite a number of citizens went to the new insane asylum to witness the starting up of the dynamos and the lighting of the building by electric light. The exercises were begun with music by the band from the feeble minded. . . After watching the lights for a short time, the crowd went to the amusement hall where . . . there was music and some dancing."

18 Oct 1890 Charles F. Menninger read a paper titled "The Insanity of Hamlet" to a literary club in Topeka, Kansas. The research Menninger did for this paper has been cited as a beginning point in his interest in psychiatry. Mennninger, with his sons Karl and William, founded the multidisciplinary Menninger Clinic in 1919.

28 Jun 1892 In a letter to Wilhelm Fleiss, Sigmund Freud first used the term abreaction, to denote a verbal reaction to a past trauma. The term first appeared in public in 1893, in a paper by Freud and Josef Breuer titled "On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomenon: Preliminary Communication."

29 Dec 1892 The Philadelphia Inquirer article, "Psychological Papers," described the first annual convention of the APA, identified as the "National American Psychological Association." A brief description of Edmund C. Sanford's paper on dreaming was followed by titles and authors of other papers. The article concluded with the dates and location of the 1893 convention.

1 May 1893 The World's Columbian Exposition opened in Jackson Park in Chicago. The exposition commemorated the 400th anniversary of Columbus's sighting America and featured an extensive display of psychological apparatus, arranged by Joseph Jastrow. Jastrow replicated Francis Galton's Anthropometric Laboratory in London. For a small fee, visitors' mental and physical qualities could be measured with several of the instruments.

23 Jul 1895 On this night or the following night, Sigmund Freud dreamt about a patient named Irma. Upon awakening, Freud made notes about his dream and subsequently analyzed the content of the dream. This was the first dream he analyzed and it became the prototype for his later technique of dream analysis.

17 Aug 1895 Edward L. Thorndike, recently graduated from Wesleyan University, applied for admission to graduate study at Harvard University. Thorndike earned a master's degree at Harvard in 1897 before entering Columbia University to complete his doctoral studies.

4 Jun 1897 Edward L. Thorndike met James McKeen Cattell for the first time. After two years at Harvard University, Thorndike finished his doctoral work at Columbia under Cattell's supervision. His doctoral thesis, Animal Intelligence, described his studies of escape learning in cats and became a classic of early research in learning.


b>24 Jan 1898 Edward L. Thorndike delivered the first report of his experiments with escape learning in cats to the New York Academy of Sciences Section on Psychology and Anthropology. The title of his paper was "Experiments in Comparative Psychology." Thorndike's studies became classics in the study of learning.

2 Feb 1899 The executive committee of Teachers College, Columbia University, authorized 15 new faculty positions. On February 25, 1899, one of these positions was offered to Edward L. Thorndike, then at Western Reserve University. Thorndike accepted and assumed the title of Instructor in Genetic Psychology for a starting salary of $1800.

9 Nov 1899 Alfred Binet joined and became advisor to La Société Libre Pour L'Étude Psychologique de L'Enfant (The Free Society for the Psychological Study of Children). Binet started publication of the society's Bulletin in 1900 and became president of the society in 1902. Both the society and its bulletin became major conduits of Binet's work. In 1917, the society was renamed La Société Alfred Binet and in 1961 it became La Société Alfred Binet et Thédore Simon.

4 Apr 1900 The Chicago school board authorized a "psycho-physical laboratory" under the direction of Fred W. Smedley who, in 1899, had been appointed director of the Department of Child Study and Pedagogic Investigation. The Chicago laboratory and a pedagogic laboratory in Antwerp, Belgium were the world's first public education departments of school psychology.

11 Aug 1900 Clifford W. Beers was first hospitalized for mental illness at Stamford Hall in Stamford, Connecticut. Beers was a patient at four institutions during the next three years. His experiences formed the basis for his autobiography, A Mind That Found Itself, a book that inspired the mental hygiene movement of the 1920s and 1930s. Beers had the symptoms of a bipolar disorder.

30 Oct 1900 Ragnar Granit was born. Granit was a Finnish-Swedish neurophysiologist who won the Nobel prize in 1967 for his work on the physiology of color vision. Granit identified "dominator" and "modulator" cells in the retina, responsible for brightness and color perception, respectively. He also performed pioneering studies of how motion and form are coded in the retina and transmitted to the brain.

26 Nov 1900 Edward L. Thorndike and Robert S. Woodworth reported the results of their studies of transfer of training to the New York Academy of Sciences. The studies showed that training in one skill had no effect on the performance of other skills, thus refuting the theory of formal discipline, which held that education strengthens one's general mental powers.

10 Sep 1903 Clifford W. Beers was discharged from the Connecticut Hospital for the Insane, at Middletown, Connecticut, bringing to an end 3 years of care in three institutions. Beers later wrote A Mind That Found Itself, describing the treatment he had received during this time. The book became a founding document of the mental hygiene movement of the 1920s and 1930s. The hospital is now named Connecticut Valley Hospital.

1 Dec 1903 Jerzy Konorski was born. Konorski investigated the physiological and experiential nature of the learning of voluntary behavior, with special attention to instrumental conditioning of autonomic responses. His books, Conditioned Reflexes and Neuron Organization (1948) and Integrative Activity of the Brain: An Interdisciplinary Approach (1967) reflect his life's work.

18 Apr 1904 The first Congress of Experimental Psychology began in Giessen, Germany. It was attended by 85 psychologists, including Georg E. Müller, Oswald Külpe, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Narziss K. Ach. Charles Spearman later reported that the "spiritualism and 'occult' phenomena" and "contention as to the primary method of psychological research" of earlier congresses had been "wholly replaced by simple exposition of observed facts and explanatory theories."

30 Apr 1904 The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, commonly called the St. Louis World's Fair, opened in St. Louis, Missouri. The fair featured an exhibit of psychological instruments assembled by Hugo Münsterberg, lending credence to the common nickname, "brass instrument psychology." In September 1904, the fair sponsored a five days of addresses by psychologists during the International Congress of the Arts and Sciences.

30 Jun 1904 Karl F. Heiser was born. Heiser, who was both an academic and practicing clinical psychologist, was one of the authors of the first psychology certification law in the United States, adopted by Connecticut in 1945. The law provided statutory recognition of professional training, established the doctorate as the professional degree, and provided the public with a means of discriminating among care providers.

19 Sep 1904 The International Congress of Arts and Sciences began in St. Louis, Missouri, in conjunction with the St. Louis World's Fair. Speakers in seven divisions made presentations from September 19 to September 25. Psychologists were represented in the Division of Mental Sciences and included G. Stanley Hall, James McKeen Cattell, J. Mark Baldwin, Mary W. Calkins, Edward B. Titchener, C. Lloyd Morgan, John B. Watson, Pierre Janet, and Morton Prince.

20 Sep 1904 G. Stanley Hall, George T. Ladd, James McKeen Cattell, and J. Mark Baldwin delivered papers at the International Congress of Arts and Sciences, meeting at the St. Louis World's Fair. The papers were summaries of the currents state and future prospects of psychology.

21 Sep 1904 Harald Höffding and James Ward addressed the Section on General Psychology of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the St. Louis World's Fair, also known as the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. These presentations were followed on subsequent days by section meetings on experimental, comparative, and abnormal paychology.

22 Sep 1904 Robert MacDougall and Edward B. Titchener addressed the Section on Experimental Psychology of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the St. Louis World's Fair. The presentations were part of a week of scholarly activities accompanying the World's Fair.

23 Sep 1904 Edmund C. Sanford, C. Lloyd Morgan, and Mary W. Calkins addressed the Section on Comparative and Genetic Psychology of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the St. Louis World's Fair. Brief papers were also presented by Clarence L. Herrick, John B. Watson, and William Harper Davis.

24 Sep 1904 Pierre Janet and Morton Prince addressed the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the St. Louis World's Fair on the subject of abnormal psychology. Harald Höffding, Adolph Meyer, and Henry R. Marshall served as discussants of the papers. These presentations were the last in a series of World's Fair addresses that provided a comprehensive statement of contemporary psychological theory and research.

29 Dec 1904 With the election of Mary Whiton Calkins of Wellesley College to the presidency of the APA, the APA became the first American scientific society to elect a woman president.

1 Jan 1905 Clifford W. Beers wrote a 15,000 word version of his autobiography in 3 days at the Yale Club in New York City. A second version was written a few weeks later at the Hartford Retreat during a brief voluntary commitment. The third version, which was to become A Mind That Found Itself, the manifesto of the mental hygiene movement, was begun on August 26, 1905.

16 Nov 1905 Addressing the general assembly of the Société Libre Pour L'Étude Psychologique de L'Enfant (Society for the Psychological Study of Children), Alfred Binet announced the founding of the Laboratory of Experimental Pedagogy, the first laboratory school in Europe. The school was in Paris, on the rue Grange-aux-belles. On June 5, 1971, a commemorative placque was placed on the school at rue Claude Vellefaux, which had replaced the original lab school.

16 Dec 1905 In a letter to William James, Edward L. Thorndike offered to assist in writing a revised version of James's Psychology: Briefer Course. Thorndike's suggestion was politely declined by James in a letter written the next day.

7 Feb 1906 The first university psychiatric teaching hospital in the United States received its first patients. The hospital was the State Psychopathic Hospital at the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, begun by a 1901 act of the Michigan legislature. The first patients were 37 patients from the state mental hospitals at Kalamazoo and Pontiac. Albert M. Barrett was the hospital's first faculty member.

1 Oct 1906 Ivan Pavlov delivered an early, but thorough, description of the phenomena of classical condition in his Huxley Lecture at Charing Cross Hospital in London. His presentation covered the basic conditioning paradigm, extinction, generalization, discrimination, and recovery. He observed that his department of physiology had used ideas "borrowed from psychology, but now there is possibility of its being liberated from such evil influences."

5 Jun 1907 Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon published Les Enfants Anormaux (Abnormal Children), "a practical guide for the admission of retarded children into special classes." The guide was based on Binet and Simon's experiences with pupil selection for the first French special education classes in Paris (1906) and included portions of the 1905 form of the Binet-Simon scale in its selection procedures.

13 Jan 1908 The Vocation Bureau of Boston, the first vocational guidance center, opened on the premises of the Civic Service House in Boston. Frank Parsons, the founder of organized vocational guidance, was the director. The bureau's executive committee was comprised of Boston educators, employers and trade union executives. In 1917, the center changed its name to the Bureau of Vocational Guidance.

1 May 1908 The term "vocational guidance" was first used. It appeared in the first annual report of the Vocation Bureau of Boston, written by Frank Parsons, director of the bureau. In this report, Parsons also advocated for vocational guidance in the public schools. The first organized public school guidance in occupational choice began in the Boston schools in 1909.

5 May 1908 Psychologist Raymond Dodge was awarded U.S. patent number 886772 for his "apparatus for testing eyes," an early device for measuring visual acuity and astigmatism. The device was first publicly demonstrated on May 14, 1907 before the Middletown (Massachusetts) Scientific Association. Much of Dodge's experimental work dealt with visual perception and eye movements.

26 Aug 1908 The first division of child hygiene in a U.S. city health department was established by New York City. Under the direction of Dr. S. Josephine Baker, the New York Division of Child Hygiene carried out programs that were to provide standards for all subsequent child hygiene programs. Standards for day care, midwives, school medical examinations, maternal education, and public sanitation were enacted.

8 Nov 1908 The first course in vocational counseling was offered by Ralph Albertson, of the Vocation Bureau of Boston. The course was sponsored by the Boston YMCA and organized by Frank Parsons, founder of the vocational guidance movement. Classes were originally scheduled to begin on October 5, 1908, but Parsons died on September 26. The classes were "to fit young men to become vocation counsellors and manage vocation bureaux . . . anywhere in the country."

11 Apr 1910 The third state mental hospital solely for the care of African American patients was established by the Maryland state legislature. The hospital, which opened at Crownsville on July 21, 1911, was known as the Hospital for the Negro Insane of Maryland. The hospital was later named Crownsville State Hospital and is now Crownsville Hospital Center.

18 May 1910 At the annual meeting of the American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded in Lincoln. Illinois, Henry H. Goddard proposed definitions for a system for classifying individuals with mental retardation. Goddard used the terms moron, imbecile, and idiot for categories of increasing impairment. This nomenclature was the standard of the field for decades.

8 Apr 1911 Edward Maynard Glaser was born. Glaser was an organizational consulting psychologist. During World War II, Glaser worked to improve training, organizational structures, and classification procedures in the U. S. Navy. In addition to professional consulting, Glaser chaired first California state psychology licensing standards committee (1957) and founded the interdisciplinary Human Interaction Research Institute (1961).

4 Jul 1911 The first mental hospital in the province of Alberta, located in Ponoka, was opened for the admission of patients. Alberta was part of the Northwest Territories until 1905 and its residents with mental illness were previously treated in Manitoba provincial institutions at the rate of one dollar per day.

7 Jul 1911 The first university course in vocational guidance began at the Harvard University Summer School under instructor Meyer Bloomfield. While the course did not carry academic credit, 41 students enrolled. Similar courses began at the University of Chicago in 1912 and at Columbia University in 1913.

12 Nov 1912 Claude E. Buxton was born. Buxton was chair of the Yale University Psychology Department for 15 years, beginning in 1951. His research commitment to studies of education and the teaching of psychology was reflected in books titled Adolescents in School (1973) and College Teaching: A Psychologist's View (1957).

23 Dec 1912 The second Congress of Polish Neurologists, Psychiatrists, and Psychologists ended in Cracow. At this congress, the Polish Neuro-Psychiatric Society was formed.

16 Apr 1913 The Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, one of the divisions of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was opened. Adolph Meyer was the first director of the clinic.

21 Oct 1913 The National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA) was organized at Grand Rapids, Michigan. Frank M. Leavitt of the University of Chicago chaired the organizing committee and was the first president of the association. The NVGA's constitution was approved during its second annual meeting, December 7-9, 1914, at Richmond, Virginia. In 1985, the NVGA became the National Career Development Association.

1 Jan 1914 Wolfgang Köhler assumed the directorship of the Anthropoid Research Station on the Spanish island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The station was financed by the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Köhler was confined to the island for the duration of World War I because the British Navy controlled the seas around Tenerife and he carried out his famous studies of insightful problem solving in chimpanzees during this time.

4 Feb 1914 The first mental hospital in the province of Saskatchewan, located in Battleford, was opened for the admission of patients. Saskatchewan was part of the Northwest Territories until 1905 and its residents with mental illness had been treated in Manitoba provincial institutions at the rate of one dollar per day.

15 May 1915 Raymond Dodge and Francis G. Benedict's extensive studies of the effects of alcohol and performance were published by the Carnegie Nutrition Laboratory in Boston. Dodge, an experimental psychologist, later presented some of this work to the National Academy of Sciences on November 2, 1915, in a paper titled "Neuromuscular Effects of Moderate Doses of Alcohol."

1 Jun 1916 Walter Dill Scott became the first psychologist to hold the title of Professor of Applied Psychology. Scott was given the title at the Carnegie Institute of Technology during a leave of absence from Northwestern University.

26 Apr 1917 The Judge Baker Foundation opened in Boston under the direction of psychologist William Healy. The main interest of the clinic was juvenile delinquency research and treatment. In 1933, the clinic's name changed to the Judge Baker Guidance Center. As an outgrowth of this clinic, the J. J. Putnam Children's Center, focusing on preschool children, was opened in Roxbury in 1941.

4 May 1917 Walter Dill Scott and his associates at the Carnegie Institute of Technology's Bureau of Salesmanship Research completed a draft of a fourth of their Rating Scale for Selecting Captains. The scale was designed for use by the military in World War I. Scott worked through May, June, and July 1917 to convince the military to use the scale. It was approved on August 23, 1917, marking a milestone in personnel and military psychology.

15 May 1917 The first U.S. military pilot selection tests, conducted by the Physical Examining Unit of the U.S. Army Signal Corps Aviation Section, began at the University of Pennsylvania hospital. By the fall of 1917, 67 units were conducting examinations. The 33-item test battery included tests for stereoscopic vision, equilibrium, and color vision. The testing program was later administered by the Air Service Medical Research Laboratory, established in October 1917.

28 May 1917 The APA Committee on Psychological Examination of Recruits first met at Vineland, New Jersey, to devise personnel classification methods for the military in World War I. Robert M. Yerkes chaired the committee, which developed the Army Alpha and Army Beta Tests. Other participants were Edgar A. Doll, Henry H. Goddard, Thomas H. Haines, Lewis M. Terman, Frederick L. Wells, and Guy M. Whipple

5 Aug 1917 U.S. Secretary of War Newton D. Baker created the Committee on Classification of Personnel in the Army. Psychologist Walter Dill Scott had vigorously promoted objective means of identifying officer candidates in the army and became director of the committee. Edward L. Thorndike, Walter V. Bingham, James R. Angell, Raymond Dodge, John F. Shepard, Edward K. Strong, Lewis M. Terman, John B. Watson, and Robert M. Yerkes were members of the committee.

23 Aug 1917 The "Soldier's Qualification Card," devised by a committee headed by Walter Dill Scott, was approved by the Adjutant General of the U.S. Army, H. P. McCain. This brief questionnaire, derived from Scott's "Rating Scale for Selecting Captains," was the first objective instrument used to select candidates for officer training camps.

18 Oct 1917 The U.S. War Department created the Air Service Medical Research Laboratory within the U.S. Army Signal Corps. This unit, now the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, was organized at Hazelhurst Field, New York, on January 19, 1918. John B. Watson was on the first medical research board and Knight Dunlap headed the Psychology Department, which studied personnel selection, ability requirements, and the effects of "mental state" on pilot performance.

1 Mar 1918 The first company of psychologist officers in the U. S. Army was commissioned as psychological examiners in the Sanitary Corps at Camp Greenleaf, Georgia. The group included Calvin P. Stone, Walter S. Hunter, Albert T. Poffenberger, Edgar A. Doll, Donald G. Paterson, Karl M. Dallenbach, Edwin G. Boring, Horace B. English, John W. Bare, and John E. Anderson.

14 Sep 1919 William H. Angoff was born. Angoff was a leading expert on psychometric theory and practice. His book chapter "Scales, Norms, and Equivalent Scores" (1971) became a definitive treatment of test scaling and equating. Angoff was one of the first psychologists hired by the Educational Testing Service, where he worked for 43 years.

19 Feb 1920 The National Vocational Guidance Association was reorganized in Chicago as a federation of regional associations in addition to a national organization. Interest in the earlier organization by the same name had dwindled until there was no annual meeting or new officers in 1919. John M. Brewer was elected president of the reorganized association. In 1985, the association's name was changed to the National Career Development Association.

27 Sep 1920 The first client, a child, was seen at the Tavistock Clinic in London. Originally named the Tavistock Square Clinic for Functional Nervous Disorders, the clinic was one of the first outpatient clinics in Great Britain to provide psychoanalytic therapy for indigent clients. The founder and first director of the clinic was Hugh Crichton-Miller. The clinic is known for its work in psychosomatic medicine, social psychiatry, and child and family therapy.

10 Feb 1921 The trustees of Teachers College, Columbia University, authorized the Institute of Educational Research and appointed Edward L. Thorndike to be research director of the division of educational psychology.

31 May 1921 The Pennsylvania state legislature changed the name of the Pennsylvania State Lunatic Hospital to Harrisburg State Hospital, its present name. The name change was typical of reforms in terminology of the time.

23 Nov 1921 The Sheppard-Towner Act was passed, establishing a federal role in maternal and infant health programs. The act was attacked by the American Medical Association as a "imported socialistic scheme." The act was allowed to expire on June 30, 1929, after providing $7 million in services in every state except Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Illinois. The constitutionality of the act was challenged in the U.S.

Supreme Court.

4 May 1922 The National Council for Mental Hygiene of Great Britain was founded. The organization was modelled after Clifford W. Beers's National Committee for Mental Hygiene, founded in 1909.

27 Jun 1923 The "First Ordinary General Meeting" of Great Britain's National Council for Mental Hygiene was held. Clifford W. Beers, leader of the American mental hygiene movement, was an honored guest.

6 Mar 1925 Charles C. Spiker was born. Spiker was a pioneer of experimental child psychology. His research on the basic laws of learning, using child participants, was conducted at the Institute of Child Behavior and Development (1951-1970) and the Department of Psychology (1972-1990), both at the University of Iowa. Spiker's major contribution was a discrimination learning theory that broadened the scope of Kenneth Spence's learning theory.

2 Jun 1927 The organizing committee of the International Committee for Mental Hygiene met in Paris at the same time as a 3-day celebration of the life of Philippe Pinel. The committee was headed by the mental health care reformer Clifford W. Beers. It was decided to hold the first International Congress on Mental Hygiene in April 1929, but lack of finances delayed the congress until May 5, 1930.

24 May 1928 The American Foundation for Mental Hygiene was incorporated in Delaware. Its function was to receive and disburse funds for projects of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, headed by mental health reformer Clifford W. Beers. The first major project was the International Congress on Mental Hygiene, planned for April 1929. The congress actually was delayed until May 1930.

6 Sep 1929 In an address to the Ninth International Congress of Psychology in New Haven, Connecticut, Edward L. Thorndike stated "I was wrong," to introduce his public revision of the laws of exercise and effect. Thorndike concluded that he was wrong about the role of simple repetition in learning and wrong to assume that punishment had effects opposite to those of reward.

8 May 1933 Richard M. Suinn was born. Suinn has promoted improvements in the education of psychologists, with special focus on recruitment and training of ethnic minorities. APA Distinguished Career Contribution to Education and Training in Psychology Award, 1993.

16 Jun 1933 The organizing meeting of the Pennsylvania Association of Clinical Psychologists (PACP), forerunner of the Pennsylvania Psychological Association, was held in Harrisburg. The group elected acting president Thaddeus Bolton, of Temple University, and acting secretary Florentine Hackbusch, of the state's Bureau of Mental Hygiene. The PACP approved its constitution at its founding meeting in Harrisburg on March 30, 1934.

30 Mar 1934 The first official meeting of the Pennsylvania Association of Clinical Psychologists (PACP) was held in Harrisburg at the Hotel Harrisburger. Lightner Witmer, of the University of Pennsylvania, was elected president by the 31 psychologists in attendance and Mary Vanuxem, of Laurelton State Village, was elected vice president. In 1946, the PACP became the Pennsylvania Psychological Association.

9 Jul 1934 Herbert Jasper, at Brown University, made the first electrical tracing from the human brain at the Emma Pendleton Bradley Home in East Providence, Rhode Island. Jasper and Hallowell Davis, at Harvard University, were independently engaged in experiments on recording electrical activity in the brain at this time.

2 Nov 1934 The first newsletter of the Association of Consulting Psychologists was issued. J. P. Symonds and Warren G. Findley were the editors of the newsletter. The newsletter became the Journal of Consulting Psychology in 1937.

1 Mar 1935 The first study of the effects of air flight conditions on human performance was reported by Captain Harry G. Armstrong of the U.S. Army Air Corps. The study examined the effects of cold temperature on pilot efficiency. Captain Armstrong went on to command the Air Corps Physiological Research Laboratory, created later in 1935.

25 Apr 1935 The U.S. Army Air Corps Physiological Research Unit was authorized. The unit was established at Wright Field, Ohio, on May 18, 1935, under the command of Captain Harry G. Armstrong. The unit conducted the first studies of human performance under the special environmental conditions of flight. After several name changes, the laboratory was named the Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory on June 1, 1985.

10 Jun 1935 Dr. Bob Smith of Akron, Ohio began sustained abstinence from alcohol with the help of his wife Anne Smith and friend Bill Wilson. The date is considered the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous, whose group meetings and 12-step program have been the model for many other mutual support therapeutic groups. The Smiths' house at 855 Ardmore is now a National Historic Landmark.

7 Mar 1937 Under the title, "Psychology Journal Out," the New York Times announced the publication of the first issue of the Journal of Consulting Psychology, published by the Association of Consulting Psychologists. The journal's first article was written by James McKeen Cattell.

26 Jun 1937 The Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation Conference on Aging was held in Falmouth, Massachusetts. The meeting brought together twenty authors who contributed chapters to Edmund V. Cowdry's Problems of Ageing (1939), and was a landmark event in the scientific study of aging.

5 Sep 1938 The first annual meeting of the American Association for Applied Psychology (AAAP) was held at the University of Minnesota. The AAAP was organized at a meeting on August 30-31, 1937, and its constitution was approved at this 1938 meeting. The AAAP merged with the APA when the APA reorganized in 1944.

29 Nov 1938 Ralph Buchsbaum's book Animals Without Backbones was first published. This enduring guide to invertebrate behavior has gone through several editions over a lifetime of more than 50 years.

1 Aug 1939 The Occupational Information and Guidance Service was established in the U.S. Office of Education. Harry A. Jager was the first chief of the division, which promoted s

tate offices of occupational guidance and education.

8 May 1940 An early report of the successful use of insulin shock therapy in the treatment of patients with severe mental illness was made by Philip Polatin, Hyman Sponitz, and Benjamin Wiesel of the New York Psychiatric Institute.

25 Mar 1941 The National Guidance Association was established, with headquarters at Chicago. Its domain included "educational, vocational, recreational, social, health, and citizenship"


15 Jul 1941 Psychologist John C. Flanagan was commissioned in the U.S. Army Air Forces with the rank of major. Flanagan immediately became the director of the Aviation Psychology Program (APP). Other members of the APP were nominated by the U. S. Civil Service Commission, the APA, and the American Association for Applied Psychology. The APP was primarily responsible for selection, classification, and training of Air Force personnel in World War II.

21 Sep 1941 Psychologist Laurance F. Shaffer, a new Lieutenant Colonel in the U.S. Army Air Forces, was assigned to Maxwell Field, Alabama, to activate Psychological Research Unit #1, the first American pilot selection examining unit in World War II. Examinations began on October 13, 1941. Lt. Col. Robert T. Rock, assigned to Kelly Field, Texas, on November 17, 1941, inaugurated Psychological Research Unit #2. These units evolved into the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory.

13 Oct 1941 The first U.S. Army Air Forces pilot selection examinations in World War II began at Psychological Research Unit #1, at Maxwell Field, Alabama. The test instruments employed, on an experimental basis, were the Complex Coordination Test, the Rotary Pursuit Test, the Seashore Visual Discrimination Reaction Time Test, the Seashore Arm-Hand Swaymeter, and the Seashore Photoelectric Aiming Test.

15 Sep 1942 The first U.S. Army Air Forces Aviation Psychology Program (APP) detachments to work at flying schools were ordered to air bases at Las Vegas, Nevada, Harlingen, Texas, and Tyndall Field, Florida. The units were under the commands of Major Clarence W. Brown, Major Glen Finch, and Lieutenant Colonel R. N. Hobbs, respectively. The AAP units were responsible for selection of low-altitude bombadiers and selection and training of flexible gunners.

14 Feb 1943 The Langley Porter Clinic opened in San Francisco. The clinic was planned by Aaron J. Rosanoff while he was director of institutions for the State of California and is an outgrowth of his interest in preventive programs of mental health. The facility is now the Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute of the University of California, San Francisco.

9 Oct 1943 The U.S. Army Air Forces Psychological Film Test Unit was activated at Santa Ana (California) Army Air Base. Lieutenant Colonel James J. Gibson directed this program of developing films for personnel classification testing, aircraft recognition training, and studies of training film effectiveness.

28 Oct 1944 The U.S. Army Air Forces (AAF) Aviation Psychology Program was formally extended to service in eleven AAF convalescent hospitals. Captain Sidney W. Bijou was placed in charge of coordinating this program of testing, classification, and training hospitalized AAF personnel for further service.

29 May 1945 The Psychology Branch of the Aero Medical Research Laboratory was approved and Lieutenant Colonel Paul M. Fitts was assigned the duties of Chief. The Psychology Branch was the first human engineering laboratory in the Army Air Forces. The first studies were of instrument legibility, movement of controls, instrument reading under acceleration, and shape coding of controls. The latter studies eliminated accidental raising of the landing gear while on the ground.

18 Aug 1945 Jill N. Reich was born. Reich has played an important role in the development of education and training standards for psychologists. Under her direction, the APA accreditation manual was rewritten in the early 1990s. APA Distinguished Contribution to Education and Training in Psychology Award, 1993.

18 Sep 1945 The first congressional hearing testimony by an officer of the APA was given by Donald Marquis, secretary of the APA. Marquis spoke before the House Subcommittee on Public Health in favor of passage of the National Neuropsychiatric Institute Act (H. R. 2550). APA executive secretary Dael Wolfle testified in favor of the Senate version of the same bill before the Senate Subcommittee on Health and Education on March 6, 1946.

20 May 1946 The Viennese Association of Individual Psychology, disbanded during the Nazi occupation of Austria, was reopened at ceremonies at the University of Vienna.

20 May 1946 The Pennsylvania Psychological Association was created by a revision of the constitution of the Pennsylvania Association of Clinical Psychologists (PACP). Dael Wolfle, executive director of the newly-reconstituted APA, was the keynote speaker at this meeting. The PACP was dormant during World War II and Morris Viteles, of the University of Pennsylvania, was responsible for this first postwar meeting.

7 Jan 1947 Spring Grove State Hospital in Maryland announced that it had released several patients with "incurable" mental disorders after they had undergone prefrontal lobotomies. There was widespread use of the prefrontal lobotomy in the 1940s.

20 Aug 1948 Meeting in London, the International Congress on Mental Health formed the World Federation for Mental Health, with John R. Reese of Britain as president. The purpose of the group was to promote world peace by curbing individual aggressiveness.

5 May 1950 Walter Freemen, who introduced and promoted the use of the prefrontal lobotomy in the United States, announced at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association that he would perform no more lobotomies or topectomies because of their harmful aftereffects, such as seizures.

10 Jul 1950 The first International Congress of Gerontology began in Liège, Belgium under the presidency of Lucien Brull. The conference was attended by 133 representatives of 18 gerontological societies in 14 different nations. The meeting was promoted by V. Korenchevsky of England, founder of the British Club for Research on Ageing in 1945. The International Association of Gerontology was founded at this meeting.

17 Aug 1950 The U.S. State Department established a National Psychological Strategy Board to coordinate its propaganda and psychological warfare efforts in the "cold war" with the Soviet Union.

22 Nov 1950 Nathan W. Ackerman and Raymond Sobel's article "Family Diagnosis: An Approach to the Pre-School Child" was published in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. This work has been cited as the first article in the field of family therapy.

1 Mar 1951 The first edition of the West Virginia Psychological Association newsletter was published.

20 Jun 1951 President Truman created the Psychological Strategy Board to handle American psychological warfare--propaganda, economic, and political activities--during the "cold war." The board was directed by former Secretary of the Army and University of North Carolina president Gordon Gray. The board was one of many cold war attempts to use psychological research to promote political goals.

1 Sep 1951 The first psychiatric service benefit in a medical insurance plan was implemented by the Kaiser-Permanente Health Plan in Oakland, California. The services were provided at a small in-patient hospital and out-patient clinic in San Francisco. The chief architects of the plan were psychologists Timothy Leary and Mervin B. Freedman, and psychiatrists Harvey Powelson and Mary Sarvis.

14 Dec 1951 Psychologist Louis Gellermann was convicted in Seattle of using sexual intercourse in an attempt to cure three of his female clients of their "guilt complexes."

9 Jan 1952 The U.S. Army's Clinical Psychology Officer Course opened at the Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Officers completing the course were given the military occupational specialty rating of psychological assistant.

14 Aug 1952 President Truman appointed the former Ambassador to Moscow, Alan G. Kirk, to direct the Psychological Strategy Board. The board coordinated U.S. postwar propaganda efforts, designed to offset Soviet propaganda.

22 Sep 1952 The Annual Congress of Anesthetists began in Virginia Beach, Virginia. At this meeting, Virginia Apgar presented her 10-point system for rating the brain functioning of newborn infants. The Apgar score was based on heart rate, respiration, reflex irritability, muscle tone, and skin color. Apgar's contribution was commemorated in 1994, when a U.S. postage stamp was issued in her honor.

11 Apr 1953 Congress created the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) and abolished the Federal Security Agency. Oveta Culp Hobby was the first secretary of HEW. HEW programs of interest to psychologists included the National Institutes of Health, the Office of Education, and the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. In 1979, HEW was divided into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services.

25 Apr 1953 The American Cancer Society reported the results of research indicating that cancer causes death more quickly in patients with "repressed" personalities. There has been continued research on the relation between cancer and personality, with special attention given to styles of coping with stress.

20 Aug 1953 Manfred Sakel, who developed insulin shock therapy for schizophrenia, addressed the World Federation for Mental Health in Vienna. Sakel denounced the failure to differentiate between physiological and environmental causes of mental illness and the indiscriminate use of electric shock therapy as a substitute for insulin shock therapy. The later introduction of drug therapies reduced the use of both electric and insulin shock therapies.

8 Jan 1955 The New York State Mental Hygiene Department reported that mental patients with varying diagnoses showed improvement after being treated with the new drugs Thorazine (chlorpromazine) and Serpasil (reserpine).

7 Mar 1955 A federal commission headed by former president Herbert Hoover reported that over 50% of the 1,500,000 hospital beds in the U.S. were devoted to the care of people with mental illness, making mental illness the "greatest single" U.S. health problem.

9 May 1955 Herman C. B. Denber of New York's Manhattan State Hospital reported to the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association that the new drugs chlorpromazine and reserpine tranquillized patients with serious mental illness to such a degree that, for the first time, conventional psychotherapy could be used with them. Reserpine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in 1953 and chlorpromazine was approved in 1954.

13 Jun 1955 The first convention of the Hawaii Psychological Association was held in Honolulu, under the leadership of president W. Edgar Vinacke. Herbert B. Weaver was elected president for the coming year.

4 Oct 1956 The first meeting of the Section of Experimental Psychology and Animal Behavior of the International Union of Biological Sciences was held at the Palais Universitaire, Strasbourg, France. American psychologists Frank A. Geldard, Clarence H. Graham, and Herbert S. Langfeld attended.

12 Apr 1957 The Journal for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior was founded at a meeting in the Statler Hotel in New York City. The journal was founded as a forum for studies of operant conditioning. A formal proposal for the journal was later written by Charles Ferster, William N. Schoenfeld, Murray Sidman, and Peter B. Dews. Ferster served as the first editor of the journal and sent out the first call for papers on August 8, 1957.

29 Oct 1957 The Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (SEAB) was incorporated in Washington, DC. The SEAB was founded to publish the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (1958) and later published the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1968). The incorporation papers were signed by Joseph V. Brady, Richard J. Herrnstein, and Donald S. Blough. Murray Sidman was president pro tem of the SEAB board of directors when it first met on April 11, 1958.

14 Dec 1957 The first oral examination for a license to practice psychology in Arkansas was administered. The oral examination was preceded by a written examination on October 12, 1957. Seven applicants were issued licenses after these first examinations.

20 Mar 1958 The Dutch Society of Group Psychotherapy was founded. The first scientific meeting was held May 16, 1958.

10 Apr 1958 In an address to the International Association of Applied Psychology meeting in Rome, Pope Puis XII generally endorsed modern psychological practices, but opposed the use of truth serum, lie detectors, or other devices to "enter against his will into a person's interior domain."

13 Jan 1959 Frederick I. Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara B. Snyderman's book The Motivation to Work was published. By 1984, this book had been cited in over 795 other publications and was selected as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

25 Aug 1959 President Eisenhower signed Public Law 86-209, an Act of Congress authorizing the National Medal of Science. The award was first presented in 1962 and the first psychologist to win the award was Neal E. Miller, in 1964.

1 Sep 1960 The First Annual Scientific Meeting of the Psychonomic Society began at the University of Chicago. The meeting's officers were Clifford T. Morgan, chairman; William S. Verplanck, secretary-treasurer; Benton J. Underwood, program, and William D. Neff, arrangements.

10 May 1961 In a paper delivered to the American Psychiatric Association meeting in St. Louis, Peter Lindstrom reported significant success in treating severely disturbed patients with mental illness by means of ultrasound applications to the brain.

30 Aug 1961 Undergraduate Curricula in Psychology, the report of the second national conference on teaching psychology at the undergraduate level, was published. The conference itself was held at the University of Michigan during the summer of 1960. Wilbert J. McKeachie and John E. Milholland directed the conference. Lawrence E. Cole, William Hunt, Robert Leeper, Wilbert Ray, Robert L. Isaacson, James V. McConnell, and Edward L. Walker were the other participants.

18 Oct 1961 J. McVicker Hunt's book Intelligence and Experience was published. By 1979, Hunt's book had been cited by over 490 other publications and was chosen as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

9 Dec 1961 President Kennedy's panel on mental retardation recommended nationwide enactment of state laws requiring phenylketonuria testing at birth in an attempt to combat one form of mental retardation through early detection.

21 Apr 1962 The Century 21 Exhibition, a world's fair in Seattle, opened. The United States Science Pavilion included several psychology exhibits, among them an exhibit on imprinting in chicks, an exhibit on maternal love in monkeys, an exhibit on behavior genetics in mice, a demonstration of operant conditioning in pigeons, and a demonstration of visual discrimination in salmon.

24 Apr 1962 The first issue of the journal Family Process was published. This journal has been cited as the first journal in the field of family psychology. Family Process was founded by Don D. Jackson and Nathan W. Ackerman and was published by the Mental Research Institute and the Family Institute.

30 Nov 1962 Jerome Kagan and Howard A. Moss's book Birth to Maturity: A Study in Psychological Development was published. In 1982, the journal Current Contents chose this book as a "citation classic" because it had been cited in over 460 other publications.

10 Dec 1963 Sir John C. Eccles, Alan L. Hodgkins, and Andrew F. Huxley were awarded the Nobel prize for their studies of the physiology of nervous transmission.

2 Jan 1964 Bernard Berelson and Gary A. Steiner's book Human Behavior: An Inventory of Scientific Findings was published. By 1979, their book had been cited in over 330 other publications and appeared as a "citation classic" in the journal Current Contents.

23 Jan 1964 The 1964 Conference on the Professional Preparation of Counseling Psychologists, commonly referred to as the Grayston Conference, began at the Grayston Conference Center of Teachers College, Columbia University, in Riverdale, New York. Albert S. Thompson and Donald E. Super chaired the conference. The Grayston Conference provided the first major definition of the field of counseling psychology after the Northwestern Conference of 1951.

10 Feb 1964 Abraham Kaplan's book, The Conduct of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioral Science, was published. By 1980, Kaplan's book had been cited in over 740 other publications and was featured as a "citation classic" in the journal Current Contents.

24 Mar 1964 Bernard Rimland's book Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior was published. In 1981, the journal Current Contents chose Rimland's book as a "citation classic." It had been cited in over 425 other publications by that time.

7 Jan 1965 Robert M. Gagné 's book, The Conditions of Learning was published. By 1977, the book had gone through three editions and had been cited in over 875 other publications. The journal Current Contents featured Gagn 's book as a "citation classic."

12 Jan 1965 In a special message to Congress entitled "Toward Full Educational Opportunity," President Lyndon Johnson described the beginnings of Project Head Start, a nationwide preschool program based on research demonstrating the effectiveness of early intervention in reducing learning deficits in disadvantaged children.

20 Apr 1965 Leonard P. Ullmann and Leonard Krasner's book Case Studies in Behavior Modification was published. This was the first use of the term behavior modification in the title of a book. By 1980, Ullman and Krasner's book had been cited in over 480 other publications and it was selected as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

4 Jun 1965 A dozen protest marchers appeared at the APA Headquarters Building in Washington, DC, carrying signs protesting "immorality practiced under the cover of phony science." The group represented the Committee to Bring Morality to the Mental Professions and attacked the APA, psychological testing, and psychotherapy by non-physicians.

30 Jun 1965 In a White House ceremony, Sargent Shriver, the director of Project Head Start, presented a flag with the new Head Start insignia to Lady Bird Johnson, the honorary chairman of Project Head Start. The flag was red, white, and blue with a design of building blocks and an arrow pointing upward. The day had been declared Head Start Day by President Johnson in a cabinet statement on June 19, 1965.

31 Aug 1965 In a Rose Garden ceremony, President Johnson declared the beginnings of Project Head Start a success and announced the expansion of the program to provide year-round opportunities for 350,000 children, summer programs for another 500,000 and followup contacts for those limited to summer sessions.

1 Aug 1966 Norman R. Draper and Harold Smith's book, Applied Regression Analysis, was published. By 1981, this book had been cited in over 2,760 other publications and was featured as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

2 Sep 1967 The first official annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy (AABT) was held in Washington, DC, during the APA convention. Cyril M. Franks was the first president of the AABT. The AABT was founded in 1966 at the home of Andrew Salter.

3 Sep 1967 The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis was founded at a Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Board of Directors meeting at the Shoreham Hotel in Washington, DC. A. Charles Catania was chairman of the board at the meeting and Montrose M. Wolf was chosen as editor of the new journal.

3 Oct 1967 Frederick Wiseman's film "Titicut Follies" was released. The film depicted outrageously poor conditions at Bridgewater (Massachusetts) State Hospital for the criminally insane. Critics said that Wiseman selectively shot and edited the film to exaggerate the impression of poor treatment and violated the privacy of patients. Lawsuits brought by the state delayed showing the film in Massachusetts for two years, until June 24, 1969.

31 Aug 1968 Psychologists Interested in the Study of Psychoanalysis was founded at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco during the APA convention. This organization became APA Division 39 (Psychoanalysis) in 1979.

9 Oct 1968 Based partially on evidence linking criminal behavior with the presence of an extra Y chromosome in men, Laurence E. Hannell was acquitted of murder in the fatal stabbing of a 77-year-old woman in Melbourne, Australia. Testimony during Hannell's trial indicated that Hannell was an XYY male. The court ruled that he had been legally insane at the time of the murder.

14 Oct 1968 French stablehand Daniel Hugon was convicted of the murder of a Paris prostitute, but was given only a 7-year sentence on the grounds of extenuating circumstances. Tests showed Hugon to possess an extra Y sex chromosome and his lawyers argued that the "XYY syndrome" resulted in a 30% greater chance of becoming a criminal.

20 Oct 1968 The New York Times Magazine reported a link between criminality and an extra Y sex chromosome in men. The XYY male was said to be "invariably tall and usually of below-average intelligence with a tendency toward acne; he was likely to have unusual sexual tastes, often including homosexuality, and a record of criminal or antisocial behavior." Later studies showed only an indirect, if any, link between the XYY kerotype and criminal behavior.

1 Mar 1969 T. Keith Glennan, Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), announced the establishment of the NASA Office of Life Sciences. One division of the office was to undertake physiological and psychological research, beginning with studies of the effects of isolation and confinement on performance. The first office of life sciences received ambivalent support within NASA, but its successors performed many valuable studies.

9 Jan 1970 The first APA Division 29 (Psychotherapy) Midwinter Convention began in Tampa, Florida. The theme of the 3-day meeting was "Innovation in Communication." The division's midwinter meetings have continued to the present and have expanded to include participation by other practice-oriented divisions of the APA. Vin Rosenthal and Stephen Mourer organized the first meeting.

6 Sep 1970 The first APA Division 29 (Psychotherapy) Distinguished Professional Award in Psychology and Psychotherapy was presented to Eugene Gendlin, of the University of Chicago. The presentation was made at the APA convention in Miami, Florida. In 1984, the name of the award was changed to the Distinguished Psychologist Award in Psychology and Psychotherapy.

7 Sep 1970 The Society of Pediatric Psychology adopted its official bylaws. The society began meeting as a special interest group of APA Division 12 (Clinical Psychology), Section 1 (Clinical Child Psychology) in 1968, when Logan Wright served as its president. Other founding figures were Dorothea Ross and Lee Salk. On October 1, 1980, the society became Section 5 of APA Division 12.

30 Sep 1970 After months of controversy, the report of the President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography was released. The commission integrated many psychological and sociological studies into their report, which recommended the repeal of all laws prohibiting sale of sexual material to consenting adults. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew attacked the report, saying, "As long as Richard Nixon is President, Main Street is not going to turn into Smut Alley."

4 Nov 1970 A 13-year-old "wild child," who had been raised in isolation for most of her life, was discovered by child welfare authorities in Arcadia, California. Named "Genie," the child's physical, social, and linguistic development was studied for four years by a University of California, Los Angeles research team headed by David Rigler. In 1994, Genie was the subject of a broadcast on NOVA, the public television science series.

1 Apr 1973 A report titled Undergraduate Education in Psychology, informally called the Kulik report, was published. The Kulik report summarized a survey of American undergraduate psychology programs and 17 site visits, with special emphasis on 10 institutions. The survey was sponsored by the APA and the National Science Foundation. James A. Kulik, of the University of Michigan, directed the operation of the project and wrote the final report.

9 May 1973 Roger Brown's book The First Language: The Early Stages was published. Brown studied language acquisition in three children, Adam. Eve, and Sarah. By 1982, this book had been cited in over 710 other publications and was chosen as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

8 Aug 1973 William Corning, John Dyal, and Dennis Willow's book Invertebrate Learning was published. The book was the first comprehensive review of the topic after World War II.

1 Oct 1973 The APA Board of Professional Affairs formally voted to recommend that the APA request that the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) establish a National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology. The APA Board of Directors followed this recommendation on November 30, 1973, and the ABPP voted to implement the project on March 1, 1974.

24 Apr 1974 Sandra L. Bem's article "The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny" was published by the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. By 1981, this article had been cited in over 525 other publications and was chosen as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

20 Sep 1974 Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahnemann's article "Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases," was published in the journal Science. By 1983, this article had been cited in over 420 other publications and was chosen as a "citation classic" by the journal Current Contents.

17 Dec 1974 The First Latin American Conference on Training in Psychology begin in Bogota, Colombia. Approximately 50 psychologists from 14 Latin American countries participated. The conference was financially supported by the United Nations Educational, Social, and Cultural Organization and the International Union of Psychological Science.

9 Dec 1976 Psychologist Lois Barclay Murphy appeared as a contestant on the television program "To Tell the Truth." The format of this quiz show required panelists to discriminate a noteworthy person from two imposters. It's not known whether Murphy was the target person or an imposter.

19 Feb 1977 President Jimmy Carter signed Executive Order No. 11973, establishing the President's Commission on Mental Health. The commission's first meeting on March 29, 1977 was followed by public hearings across the country, giving mental health professionals a vehicle for influencing national health policy.

18 Apr 1978 Governor Milton J. Shapp of Pennsylvania signed his state's "freedom of choice" law, providing health insurance reimbursement for the services of a psychologist. The law, passed by the legislature 3 days earlier, removed any requirement of supervision by a medical doctor.

17 Nov 1979 The first meeting of the APA Division 39 (Psychoanalysis) Steering Committee was held at the New York Center for Psychoanalytic Training, the first central office of the division. Reuben Fine was president of the division at this first meeting.

7 Jul 1980 In its ruling on Parents in Action on Special Education v. Hannon, the U.S. District Court decided that intelligence tests used in the schools for special education placement were not culturally biased against African-American children. The court examined each item on the tests used in the Chicago schools and concluded that nine items on the three tests were "sufficiently suspect" but this number did not invalidate the use of the tests.

12 Dec 1980 The original National Medal of Science Act of August 25, 1959, was amended to include the behavioral and social sciences in addition to the biological, physical, mathematical, and engineering sciences. Three psychologists had won the award before 1980. Herbert A. Simon, in 1986, was the first psychologist to win the National Medal of Science under the new provisions.

25 Aug 1981 The first APA Division 29 (Psychotherapy) Jack D. Krasner Memorial Award was presented to Annette M. Brodsky and Gerald P. Koocher. The presentation was made at the APA convention in Los Angeles.

2 Mar 1982 The APA Division 39 (Psychoanalysis) Board of Directors approved the publication of the division's journal, Psychoanalytic Psychology. The journal was published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates and edited by Helen Block Lewis. Publication began with the Winter 1984 issue.

11 Sep 1982 The Dallas Society for Psychoanalytic Psychology was established, although the first open organizational meeting was held later, on November 6, 1982, during the meeting of the Texas Psychological Association at the Lincoln Hotel in Dallas. Paul Munves was instrumental in organizing the group and was its first president.

4 Mar 1983 The American Board of Professional Psychology voted to offer diplomate status in the fields of clinical neuropsychology and psychoanalysis.

3 Sep 1983 The first Sandoz Prize for Gerontological Research was presented in Budapest, Hungary. Ewald W. Busse and George L. Maddox, who headed the Duke Longitudinal Studies Research Group, shared the award with Carl Hollander, director of the Netherlands Institute for Experimental Gerontology. The prize of 20,000 Swiss francs is sponsored by Sandoz Ltd., a pharmaceutical manufacturer.

14 Nov 1983 The organizing meeting of the Massachusetts Association for Psychoanalytic Psychology was held at Tufts University. Muriel Weckstein was one of those responsible for the early meetings of the founding group, and was elected first president of the association in 1984.

6 Apr 1984 The organizational meeting of the Virginia Academic Psychology Association (VAPA) was held in Richmond. Elizabeth Guy and Raymond Kirby were charged with drafting bylaws and cochaired the founding meeting of the VAPA in November 1984, at the Virginia Psychological Association meeting in Lynchburg. The organization is now named the Virginia Academy of Academic Psychologists.

21 Sep 1984 The first official meeting of the Philadelphia Society for Psychoanalytic Psychology was held at the Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital. Frederic Levine, who chaired the group of organizers, was elected first president of the society.

1 Dec 1984 The National Conference on Training in Psychoanalysis, sponsored by APA Division 39 (Psychoanalysis) began at the William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, and Psychology in New York. The meeting was promoted by Helen Block Lewis and chaired by Murray Meisels. This conference established contact between many local organizations of psychoanalytic psychologists.

1 Mar 1985 The American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) and others were sued for restraint of trade by Bryant Welch, Toni Bernay, Arnold Schneider, and Helen Desmond, acting for the class of psychoanalytic psychologists. At issue was APsaA refusal to admit psychologists to APsaA training institutes or to the International Psychoanalytic Association, and refusal to recognize training at non-APsaA institutes. The case was settled by agreement on April 17, 1989.

20 Jan 1986 Angela Browne and David Finkelhor's article "Impact of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Research" was published in Psychological Bulletin. The article was cited often in the late 1980s.

10 Mar 1986 Susan Folkman, Richard S. Lazarus, Rand J. Gruen, and Anita DeLongis's article "Appraisal, Coping, Health Status, and Psychological Symptoms" was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

14 Mar 1986 Paul H. Blaney's article "Affect and Memory: A Review" was published in Psychological Bulletin.

17 Mar 1986 Ruth H. Strigel-Moore, Lisa R. Silberstein, and Judith Rodin's article "Toward an Understanding of Risk Factors for Bulimia" was published in the _American Psychologist_. The review concluded that female socialization is a major contributing factor in bulimia.

12 May 1986 Susan Folkman, Richard S. Lazarus, Christine Dunkel-Schetter, Anita DeLongis, and Rand J. Gruen's article "Dynamics of a Stressful Encounter: Cognitive Appraisal, Coping, and Encounter Outcomes" was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

12 May 1986 Paul D. Sweeney, Karen Anderson, and Scott Bailey's article "Attributional Style in Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review" was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The attribution of negative events to internal, stable, and global causes was found to be associated with depression.

16 Jul 1986 Kelly D. Brownell, G. Alan Marlatt, Edward Lichtenstein, and G. Terence Wilson's article "Understanding and Preventing Relapse" was published in the _American Psychologist_. The article assembled findings from many studies of addictive behaviors.

16 Jul 1986 Robert S. Wyer and Thomas K. Srull's article "Human Cognition in Its Social Context" was published in Psychological Review.

16 Jul 1986 Reid Hastie and Bernadette Park's article "The Relationship Between Memory and Judgment Depends on Whether the Judgment Task is Memory-Based or On-Line" was published in Psychological Review.

26 Sep 1986 APA Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) approved the creation of Section 6 (Ethnic Minority Clinical Psychology). Gail E. Wyatt served as the section's president for the first two years.

9 Oct 1986 The founding meeting of the Virginia Academy of Applied, Consulting, and Administrative Psychology was held at the Marriott Hotel in Richmond. Virginia Psychological Association president Norma Murdock-Kitt presided over the meeting until the election of William L. Dunn as the academy's first president. The organization is now named the Virginia Applied Psychology Academy.

24 Oct 1986 A conference titled "Tradition and Innovation in Psychoanalytic Training," began at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. Usually referred to as the Clark Conference, this meeting was sponsored by APA Division 39 (Psychoanalysis). Helen Block Lewis and Murray Meisels served as co-chairs.

19 Dec 1986 Reuben M. Baron and David A. Kenny's article "The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations" was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

15 Jan 1987 Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa's article "Validation of the Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Instruments and Observers" was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. The article provided evidence for the "big five" personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

2 Feb 1987 E. Tory Higgins and John A. Bargh's frequently cited book chapter "Social Cognition and Social Perception" was published in the Annual Review of Psychology.

20 Mar 1987 Thomas M. Achenbach, Stephanie H. McConaughy, and Catherine T. Howell's article "Child/Adolescent Behavioral and Emotional Problems: Implications of Cross-Informant Correlations for Situational Specificity" was published in Psychological Bulletin.

20 Mar 1987 Richard K. Wagner and Joseph K. Torgesen's article "The Nature of Phonological Processing and Its Causal Role in the Acquisition of Reading Skills" was published in Psychological Bulletin.

14 May 1987 Stephanie Booth-Kewley and Howard S. Friedman's article "Psychological Predictors of Heart Disease: A Quantitative Review" was published in Psychological Bulletin. The frequently-cited meta-analysis found that Type A personality, depression, anger, and anxiety were reliably related to coronary heart disease.

21 Jun 1987 The first IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, began in San Diego, California. The topic of the meeting reflected the growing convergence of the fields of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology.

25 Jun 1987 Daniel L. Schacter's article "Implicit Memory: History and Current Status" was published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Between 1986 and 1990, this article was cited more often than any other psychology article and was designated a "citation classic" by Current Contents.

5 Nov 1987 Jeffrey G. Parker and Steven R. Asher's article "Peer Relations and Later Personal Adjustment: Are Low-Accepted Children at Risk?" was published in Psychological Bulletin.

2 Mar 1988 Shelley E. Taylor and Jonathon D. Brown's article "Illusion and Well-Being: A Social Pschological Perspective on Mental Illness" was published in Psychological Bulletin. The article reviewed evidence that unrealistically positive self-perceptions are related to good mental health.

17 Apr 1989 The American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) and other psychoanalytic medical groups reached an agreement in a class-action lawsuit brought by psychoanalytic psychologists. The APsaA agreed to admit psychologists to APsaA training institutes, to allow APsaA members to teach in non-APsaA institutes, to allow psychologists to join the International Psychoanalytic Association, and to pay the court costs of the plaintiffs.

20 May 1989 The Appalachian Psychoanalytic Society was founded at the Holiday Inn World's Fair in Nashville, Tennessee. Paul Lerner was elected first president of the organization.

5 Jan 1990 Garaldine Downey and James C. Coyne's article "Children of Depressed Parents: An Integrative Review" was published in Psychological Bulletin. This literature review was among the most frequently cited psychology articles of the early 1990s.

1 Feb 1990 John M. Digman's article "Personality Structures: Emergence of the Five-Factor Model" was published in Annual Review of Psychology. The article was frequently cited in other publications soon after its publication.

8 Mar 1990 Daniel L. Schacter, Lynn A. Cooper, and Suzanne M. Delaney's article "Implicit Memory for Unfamiliar Objects Depends on Access to Structural Descriptions" was published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. The article was frequently cited in other publications.

21 Mar 1990 Peter M. Bentler's article "Comparative Fix Indexes in Structural Models" was published in Psychological Bulletin. The article among the most frequently cited in the early 1990s.

11 Apr 1990 Eleanor E. Maccoby's article "Gender and Relationships: A Developmental Account" was published in the American Psychologist. The article was originally delivered as an APA Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award to the 1989 APA convention in New Orleans and was frequently cited by other authors after its publication.

5 May 1990 The organizing meeting of the International Federation for Psychoanalytic Education was held in Washington, DC. The meeting was sponsored by APA Division 29 (Psychoanalysis). Murray Meisels promoted the idea of the federation, which was to provide an organizational home for local psychoanalytic institutes and other psychoanalytic training facilities.

7 May 1990 Jonathan Shedler and Jack Block's article "Adolescent Drug Use and Psychological Health: A Longitudinal Inquiry" was published in the American Psychologist. The article was frequently cited in other publications in the early 1990s.

29 Aug 1990 Henry L. Roediger's article "Implicit Memory: Retention Without Remembering" was published in the American Psychologist. The article was frequently cited in the years following its publication.

12 Sep 1990 The Cincinnati Society for Psychoanalytic Psychology was founded. Oliver W. Birckhead was elected first president of the organization.

21 Nov 1990 Jacob Cohen's article "What I Have Learned (So Far)" was published in the American Psychologist. The article contains practical statistical advice and was frequently cited in other publications.

16 Jun 1991 The first annual meeting of the American Association of Applied and Preventive Psychology (AAAPP) was held in Washington, DC, during the American Psychological Society convention. George W. Albee was the first president of the AAAPP.

5 Jan 1993 Ted Strickland, the first psychologist elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, was sworn into office. Strickland represented the Sixth District of Ohio, where he was a consulting psychologist at the Ohio Correctional Facility. Strickland, a Democrat, was defeated in 1994, when Republicans won control of both the House and Senate.

10 Jun 1993 President Clinton's signature established the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research within the National Institutes of Health. The relevant legislation was Section 203 of Public Law 103-43, the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act.

30 Nov 1993 George Franklin, Sr., of Redwood City, California, was convicted of a 1969 murder on the strength of "repressed memory" testimony given by his daughter, Eileen. Franklin's conviction was reversed on appeal in 1996. The case was one of many in which traumatic childhood incidents went unreported for many years, only to emerge during psychotherapy. The authenticity of these reports has been the subject of controversy and research.

17 Jun 1994 U.S. Navy Commander John L. Sexton and Lieutenant Commander Morgan T. Sammons graduated from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, becoming the first psychologists legally trained to prescribe psychoactive drugs. Sexton and Sammons were psychopharmacology fellows while at Walter Reed.

30 Jun 1994 The first American Psychological Society (APS) Institute on the Teaching of Psychology was held in conjunction with the APS convention in Washington, DC. Douglas Bernstein, of the University of Illinois, was instrumental in organizing this event.

18 Oct 1994 President Clinton presented the 1995 National Medal of Science to Roger N. Shepard, recognizing 30 years of research in cognition. Shepard's studies of mental imagery have provided objective, quantitative evidence regarding human thought and perception. His findings have been applied to diverse problems, such as aircraft cockpit design, educational programming, and the detection of breast cancer.

24 Oct 1994 A U.S. postage stamp honoring Virginia Apgar was issued in Dallas, Texas. Apgar was an anesthesiologist who, in 1952, developed a rapid, ten-point scale for diagnosing the health of infants at birth. The Apgar Scale is often described in texts in mental retardation and developmental psychology.

31 Oct 1994 President Clinton signed into law the Social Security Act Amendments of 1994, which guaranteed licensed psychologists independent practice and reimbursement under Medicare for services provided in a hospital, where consistent with state law.

10 Feb 1995 The first prescription written by a practicing psychologist legally trained to prescribe psychoactive drugs was written by U.S. Navy Commander John L. Sexton, PhD. The prescription was for 30 100 mg tablets of Sertraline, an antidepressant that acts by blocking the reuptake of serotonin.

17 Feb 1995 The APA Council of Representatives approved the creation of APA Division 51 (Men and Masculinity). Ronald F. Levant was instrumental in organizing the new division.

22 May 1996 The first electronic registration for an APA convention was received via the Internet at APA headquarters. The registrant was Thomas J. Capo, an APA student affiliate at the State University of New York - Buffalo

26 Jun 1996 The First Interamerican and Iberoamerican Meeting of Behavior Analysis began in Veracruz, Mexico.

13 Jul 1997 The First Regional Congress of Psychology for Professionals in the Americas was held in Mexico, D. F.