PSYCHOLOGY 461
HISTORY AND SYSTEMS OF PSYCHOLOGY
DR. WARREN R. STREET
TEXT OF OVERHEAD NOTES TO ACCOMPANY LECTURES


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The Graduate Teaching Assistant for this class is Ms. Liane Pereira. Her office is PS 215. Her office hours for helping students are Tues, 3:15-4:15. Liane can help you with your term paper and exams.


UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION

Reasons for Studying History

1. Deeper understanding of current events
2. Makes meaningful change possible (viz. Kuhn)
3. Perspective, Humility
4. Skepticism, recognizing insubstantial fads and anecdotal evidence
5. Avoiding repetition of the mistakes of the past
6. A source of valuable ideas Example: Social facilitation
7. Personal curiosity

Why are you studying the history of psychology? Is there another reason not in the list above? Let's discuss the difference between causes of behavior and later explanations of behavior.
Causes lie in antecedent events, explanations often refer to the attainment of some outcome.
Lewin's Aristotelian v. Galilean views of science.

Historiograpic Issues

Empirical history (bare description) v. Explanatory history (linking events, comparison, causation)

Presentism (how the past has led to the present) v. Historicism (history for its own sake, viewed in contemporary context)

Objectivity (fairness in representation) v. Revisionism. Example of Wundtian psychology - structuralism v. voluntarism

Is there a pattern in history? Cyclical hypothesis
Linear-progressive hypothesis
Chaos hypothesis

What generates historic events?
Zeitgeist/Ortgeist hypothesis: spirit of the time and place
Great person hypothesis
Historical development - the flow of events along thematic lines

Potential parallels between the study of historic events and one's understanding of one's own life history or those of others.

Views of How Science Progresses

Science is based on observations. It isn't the observations or events themselves. It's the coherent systems of description, explanation, prediction, and control that humans agree on. So progress in science isn't a new observation or fact. It's a change in abstract explanatory language.

"Normal" view:
Orderly progression of Empirical observation ® Rational theory construction ® Testable hypothesis ® Empirical observation. Normal science. Assumption of determinism

Alternative Views:
Sir Karl Popper, b. 1902, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1935).
Falsifiability distinguishes scientific from non-scientific theories
Resistance to disconfirmation is most valued aspect of a theory.
Risky prediction preferred to "postdiction."

Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962).
History of science is marked by "normal science" and "paradigm shifts".
Progress is a social agreement among scientists
Preparadigmatic science is marked by competing theories that all seem plausible.

Paul Feyerabend, Against Method (1975).
Anarchistic theory of knowledge:
progress is disorderly
Science is whatever scientists do, creativity, innovation generate progress.

Persistent Dichotomies
1. Monism - Dualism: Fundamental principle or entity in universe is of one kind vs. two kinds, mind and matter
2. Behaviorism - Mentalism: Proper study of psychological focuses on objective content or on subjective content.
3. Conscious mentalism-Unconscious mentalism: Emphasis on awareness of mental structure or activity vs. unawareness; coincides with rationalism-irrationalism dichotomy.
4. Determinism-Indeterminism-Nondeterminism-: Human events completely determined by antecedents and explicable vs. determined but incompletely explicable vs. not determined
5. Empiricism-Rationalism: Major, if not exclusive source of knowledge is experience vs. reason
6. Functionalism-Structuralism: Psychology should describe adaptive activities vs. elemental classes and contents
7. Mechanism - Vitalism: Activities of living beings completely explicable by physiochemical constituents vs. not so explicable
8. Nativism-Empiricism: Thought and behavior emerges from innate structures vs. emerges from experiences
9. Subjectivism - Objectivism: Introspective accounts of experience do, or do not, constitute valid data.
10. Universalism-Relativism: Is the world an objective entity, the same for everyone, or is it relative to the perceiver?


UNIT 2A: PRE-SOCRATIC GREEK PHILOSOPHY (6th century BCE)

Precursors:

Animism - The behavior of things is controlled by its own "anima" or life-substance (that which "animates').
Magic - Supernatural powers under varying human control.
Olympian religion - a pantheon of gods with human qualities
Dyonysiac-Orphic religion - eternal soul confined to temporal body, seeks liberation to purely spiritual form.
Greek philosophers sought a unified, natural explanation of the material and immaterial world
Observed that all things could be reduced to more elementary parts.
The physis was assumed to be something natural that obeyed natural laws.

Greek Cosmologists (Early 5th Century, BCE):
("kosmos" means an orderly universe)

Thales (c. 625 - 545 BCE) - Water was the physis.
Necessary for life, occupies all three states - solid, liquid, gas
All things have water.
Thales began the critical tradition of Western thought: A proposition is offered and others are invited to inspect it and improve upon it.
Opened fundamental questions. What is the nature of truth? How do we know when something is true? 

Heraclitus (c. 540 - 480 BCE)- Everything is in a state of change. Becoming.
Fire is the physis. Dynamic rather than static view of the world.
Paradox: How can anything be known, since all is changing?
In psychology, principles of growth, learning, motivation, etc., represent this emphasis on change.

Democritus (c. 460 - 370 BCE) - first atomic theory, perhaps from teacher Leucippus.
Atmos = "uncut." No separate life force.
Early elementism (complex phenomena are composed of simpler elements) and reductionism (events in one domain can be explained by causes in another domain).

Empedocles (c. 495-435 BCE) Perhaps more than 1 physis.
Proposed four basic elements: Earth, Air, Fire, Water.
Concept of opposing pairs Earth-Air, Fire-Water. Parallels in personality trait theory.
Felt that combinations of elements formed things-
extremes were homogeneity ("love") and separation ("strife").
Cosmic history generated by cycles of love and strife.
Our world is one of the intermediate phases.
More refined theory of evolution, where the concept of natural selection appeared.

Heart was the seat of mental life, since sensation came in through the skin in the form of "eidola" or imperceptible copies, and blood took them to the heart. "The blood round the heart is the thought of man."

Pythagoras (c. 580-500 BCE)
Discoveries of principles of mathematics and music
Rationalism valued over empiricism, elevated to a mystic, religious status.
Mixed influence: mathematics and measurement promoted science.
Rationalism influenced Plato, retarded the growth of empirical science.
Distrust of sensory evidence, which is always imperfect and cannot provide knowledge. Mathematics, music, logic were gateways to truth.

Hippocrates (c. 460-370 BCE) -
Humoral psychology, precursor to modern trait theories.
Each basic element is represented by a bodily fluid, or humor, and has a season, a combiation of wet-dry/hot-cold attributes, and a personality associated with it.
(Note that your text incorrectly pairs blood-fire and yellow bile-air. It's blood-air and yellow bile-fire)

(Galen (c.130-200 CE) later added personality type names.)

Choleric - excess of fire. Excess of yellow bile. Quick, intense, violent emotions. Chol=bile.
Sanguine - excess of air. Excess of blood. Sang=blood. Enthusiastic, wise, friendly, intelligent.
Melancholic. Earth. Excess or black (melan) bile (chol), an imaginary secretion of  the spleen.Withdrawn, slow, pessimistic.
Phlegmatic. Water. Excess of phlegm and mucus. Passive, apathetic, bored, stupid.
Imbalances in humors lead to mental illness.
Onset caused by bad living, immorality.
Cure through diet, exercise, administration of hellebore
General approach also used by enlightened psychiatrists of 18th, 19th centuries.


UNIT 2B: SOCRATES, PLATO, AND ARISTOTLE (5th, 4th Centuries BCE)

Unsettled political and social conditions in Greek city-states
Sophists, masters of argument and rhetoric.
Extremely skeptical, nihilistic, solipsistic.
There is no truth to be discovered, all is relative to the perceiver.
Philosophers, artists, politicians, and writers countered this pessimism
Renewed interest in human condition and nature of reality

Socrates (469-399 BCE)
Known only through the writings of his student Plato.
Socratic dialogues.
Taught by woman philosopher named Aspasia.
Responded to the climate of skepticism by proposing that truth can be discovered through reason and logic (nous).
Importance of rhetoric, argument.
Expository tool of presumed ignorance, persistent questioning.
You can always question sense experience but you cannot question thinking because it is pure and immaterial.
Abstract concepts can be arrived at through induction: beauty, truth, justice.
Tried for corrupting the youth of Athens, death by drinking hemlock.

Plato (427-343 BCE)
Early writings were Socratic, later (e.g. The Republic) were his own.
Founded the Academy at Athens that lasted until 529 CE.
Lasting effect because distrust of the senses was taken into Christian dogma
Analogy of the divided line: The world is split into two parts, the world of knowledge, and the world of opinion.
Just the opposite of the way we usually think of them.
The world of knowledge, that is, reality, is made up of the Forms
Justice, Beauty, Truth, the Good, and other perfect essences.
The world of opinion or illusion is the imperfect, varying, concrete world of our senses.
Imperfect copies of the Forms populate the world of the senses.
Reality can be discovered only through logic and reason. Allegory of the cave
Sense evidence is imperfect, physical objects vary.
Rational (v. empirical)
Mind-body dualism.

Individual differences between people should dictate proper occupations
Emotion (from the heat of the blood) should produce good soldiers;
Desire (from the liver) should make good businessmen;
Reason (from the head) makes the philosopher.
Training can prepare individuals for professions.

Knowledge is innate.
Contemplation and introspection remind us of what we know.
Knowledge is corrupted by experience.
Nativism (vs. empiricism).

Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
Student at the Academy for 20 years, tutored Alexander the Great.
Founded the Lyceum, the world's first university.
Attempted to reconcile rationalism and empiricism.
Forms are abstracts, become known through rational analysis of repeated observations, direct examination of nature.
All things, even the soul, have an immaterial and a material nature.
Forms don't exist independently of the physical world.

Teleological explanations:
Things exist for a reason, a goal, its "entelechy."
Behavior is caused by the entelechy of a thing.

Learning and memory proceed by similarity, contrast, frequency, and contiguity.
Foreshadowed associationism, modern learning theory.

Personal differences created by different strengths of personality variables along dichotomies.
The Golden Mean was the ideal.


UNIT 3: POST-ARISTOTELIANS

Pyrrho and the Skeptics
Anisthenes, Diogenes, and the Cynics
Epicurus and the Epicureans
Zeno, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and the Stoics

Galen - Proposed physical causes for emotional states and mental illness; imbalance in humors. Prescribed counseling for emotional problems.

Neoplatonism (Philo, 25 BCE-50 CE, Plotinus, 204-270, and Hypatia (370-415)
Replaced Plato's forms with divine explanations.
God is the source of all truth and knowledge.
Knowledge comes from divine revelation.
From Rome to the Renaissance
Stability, hierarchicalorder,
Man's inherent sinfulness, salvation through repentance and faith
Mind-body dualism
Immortality of the soul
Subordination of all knowledge to the revealed word of God
Perfection found in another world.

Aurelius Augustine (St. Augustine)
Confessions
Focus on the spiritual world
Human motivation shifted from external to internal causes.
Action proceeds from free will
Reason and observation subordinated to faith, emotion, and introspection of subjective states.

Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
Realism v. nominalism. Promoted nominalism: ideals don't exist in nature and are only verbal conveniences.
Defined the fallacy of reification: treating an abstract belief or hypothetical construct as if it represented a concrete event or physical entity

St. Thomas Aquinas(1225-1274)
Restoration of the role of reason
Summa Theologiae

William of Occam (or Ockham) c. 1288 - c. 1348
Occam's razor, or the principle of parsimony.


UNIT 4: THE GREAT THAW: THE RENAISSANCE

The Renaissance ("rebirth") began in Italy in the 14th century
Western civilization has never turned away from the spirit of the Renaissance
Secularism, humanism, personal religion, interest in the classical past, and anti-Aristotelianism.
Landmark events of the Renaissance
Physical scientists that led the challenge to the church's authority:

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Reliance on observation, notion of primary and secondary qualities
(physical and psychological properties) of an object.
Impossibility of a science of unobservable mental events.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
One can best come to know God through observing nature.
While God created everything, He no longer takes an active interest.
Material world is governed only by natural laws.
Asserted that classification is not explanation.
Events are not purposive but are caused by antecedent events.
Natural laws are perfect, but our understanding of them is often imperfect.

Francis Bacon (1561-1626) -
Spokesman for the new objective way of doing science.
Novum Organum (1620).
Knowledge proceeds from observations of nature, not from religious faith, reason, authority, theory, mathematics, belief, o accepted opinion.
Inductive science, positivism.
Generalizations and theory can spring from observations, but are inferior indicators of reality.
Education depends on providing many different experiences.

René Descartes (1596-1650)
Has been called "the first great psychologist of the modern age."
Revolutionary effect on mathematics
Invention of Cartesian coordinates to analyze space, motion.
Applied numbers to the description of physical events
Invented analytic geometry.

Attempted the most thorough, replacement of scholasticism, rhetoric and religious tests.
Applied the method of mathematical deduction to all reality.
What principle is so free of doubt that it can serve as the starting point? I think, therefore, I am.

Mind - body dualism.
Changes to one had no necessary consequences to the other.
Dualism had lasting impact on psychology and Western thought.

Mind occupies no space and time, unaffected by normal physical laws.
Descartes listed the faculties of the mind, but philosophers have always pointed out that using the mind as a tool to study the mind contaminates any conclusions you reach.
Will and understanding are the two basic functions of the mind.
Will directs action and exercises free choice.
Ideas and other mental phenomena were believed to be innate and of divine origin.

Physical body like a machine.
Behavior was built on reflexes produced by "animal spirits" running through the body.
Mechanism tempered with mentalism for religious acceptability.
Mind and body interacted through the pineal gland.
In 1655, books placed on Index of banned books by the Roman Catholic Church.


UNIT 5: EMPIRICISM, SENSATIONALISM, AND POSITIVISM

Emperia (Greek) = Experienta (Latin) = Experience (English).
Philosophical position that the senses provide the primary data for knowledge.
Reason is secondary.
A reversal of Plato's position.

British Empiricists: Followed Descartes and Bacon to build a concept of human behavior and mental life assuming that everything begins with sensory information.

Challenges of Empiricism:
Considerable problems explaining how physical events become ideas that don't seem to conform to physical laws.

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
All nature is matter in motion.
Senses capture motion of the external world
Everything about human mental life is actually human physical life.
Denial of a non-material mind (physical monism).
Denial of free will.
Hedonic human nature

John Locke (1632-1704) -
Senses are the origins of all thinking, thought is non-material in nature (mind-body dualism). Ideas are not innate
Natural state is a "blank slate."
Ideas come from sensations (a passive response) and reflection (an active of the mind).
Complex ideas are made up of combinations of simple ideas

George Berkeley (1685-1753)
There is no material world; all is mind -- God's mind.

British Associationism

David Hume (1711-1776)
Laws of resemblance (similarity), contiguity, cause-and-effect (repeated experience with causal sequences).
Repetition was seen to affect associations - habit strength.
Hoped to establish a nomenclature of emotions.

David Hartley (1705-1757)
Attempted to provide a physiological basis for mental and behavioral events.
Related associations to "vibratiuncles"
Intensity of vibration caused emotion: high intensity=pain, moderate=pleasure.
Simultaneous and successive events tend to be associated.

James Mill (1773-1836)
Mechanistic view of associationism.
Affirmed importance of simultaneous and successive impressions.
"Mental arithmetic" complex impressions are contiguous composites of simple ones.

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
Advanced the possibility of psychology as an experimental science.
A science is still a science even though it may be inexact
"Mental Chemistry"
Empiricism led to strong advocacy for women's rights, Irish land reform, rights of blacks in Jamaica.

Alexander Bain (1818-1903)
Published the first texts in psychology
(The senses and the intellect (1855) and Emotions and will (1859))
Founded Mind (1876), the oldest journal in psychology still being published.
Attempted to describe the physiology that could produce the mental and behavioral phenomena the associationists were describing.

French Sensationalists: La Mettrie, Condillac
Humans as machines (from Descartes).
Denied innate ideas
La Mettrie contended that a better world could be achieved by a science of human behavior unrestrained by spiritualism.

Positivism:
Philosophical extension of empiricism
If something exists, then it exists in some quantity and can be measured.
If it can't be detected, it doesn't exist.
Theoretical terms must be linked to observations.
Very materialistic, humanistic.
August Comte
Only publicly observable phenomena can generate a science.
Ernst Mach
Introspective observations of mental processes are also legitimate objects of study.


UNIT 6: RATIONALISM

Active (v. passive) mind
Empiricists tended to explore the causes of behavior
Rationalists explored the reasons for behavior.

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677).
Double aspectism. Mind and body are inseperable.
All things had a material cause (Descartes's mechanism)
Psychological determinism
God = nature
Education = ethics
Emotions: Basic emotions that could combine to form more complex ones.
Passion and reason are antithetical

Gottfried Leibnitz (1646-1716)
Doctor of Laws degree at age 20.
Invented binary arithmetic and the calculus.
New Essays in Human Understanding (1765).
Monads. "energy-laden and soul-invested units

Four kinds:
the supreme monad (God)
rational monads (capable of "reflection")
sentient monads (capable of conscious perception)
simple monads (organic and inorganic matter, incapable of reflection or consciousness).

Pre-established harmony among monads
"Psychophysical parallelism."

Mind is constantly active. Activity not always conscious
Limen of perception.
Petites perceptions below the limen,
Apperception (or awareness) above the limen
Possibility of unconscious perception

Thomas Reid (1710-1796) and the Scottish School
Mental faculties: categories of thought and behavior that people have in different strengths
Interest in individual differences and early assessment of character.
Naïve realism - that there is a real world that is exactly as we experience it.

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Nativism
Categories of thought are innate: causality, time, space, quantity, quality, negation, possibility, existence.
Ethics: Categorical imperative Morality as an innate category.

Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841)
Founder of Pedagogy
Applied Liebnitz's idea of apperceptions and the limen of consciousness to education.
Apperceptive mass
Unconscious sensations, thoughts, can rise to consciousness if not opposed
Competition among unconscious ideas (Freud?)
Individual differences in need for apperceptive mass.

Principles:
New material should be related to known material
Progressive difficulty
Individualized instruction

Herbart Societies in Europe and U.S.


UNIT 7: ROMANTICISM AND EXISTENTIALISM

Kept vitalism alive
Behavior stems from basic nature of humans.
Feelings over reason
Intuition over logic
Pursuit of a good life over science and technology
Precursor of Existential and Humanistic psychology

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
"Noble savage" concept of human nature.
Natural impulses are the best guide to behavior
Science, religion, and reason corrupt humans
Government: "general will," "social contract"
Education should be based on natural impulses.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)
Humans are torn by the stresses of opposing forces
Love-hate, life-death, good-evil
One should embrace these stresses, live passionately, strive for personal growth.
Phenomenology is a legitimate study of reality, even though it is subjective

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)
Innate will to survive
Emphasized innate drives and their satisfaction
Early form of Freud's pleasure principle, sublimation

Existentialism

Existentialists have an additional emphasis on the meaning of human existence, freedom of choice, and individual uniqueness.

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
"Will to power." Perfection, excellence
Two basic personality forces, irrational (Dionysian) and rational (Apollonian).
Each person must forge a blend of these two forces.
Exerting willful mastery over one's destiny.
"Supermen" or "overmen" most successful
Best suited to lead, should not be accountable to others.

Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
Emotional and non-rational love of God
"Leap of faith," a "love affair."
Personal, not institutional, faith.
Subjectivity, not objectivity, is truth.
Stages: Aesthetic stage Ethical stage Religious stage


UNIT 8: PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOPHYSICS

Nagging problems: How do the senses inform us about the world?
How accurate is our perception of the world
If there are discrepancies, are they orderly ones?
Study of mind - body relation via the nervous system.

The search for the "personal equation"
1795 David Kinnebrook dismissed by Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne
1822 Friedrich Bessel - individual differences in reaction time, difference between objective and subjective reality. Can be seen as the incident that gave rise to modern experimental psychology.

Charles Bell (1774-1842) and François Magendie (1783-1855)
Sensory (dorsal) and motor (ventral) roots of spinal nerves
Specific mental functions are mediated by separate nerves
Transmission only goes in one direction.

Johannes Müller (1801-1858)
Handbook of human physiology (1833-1840).
Doctrine of specific nerve energies (1825)
Stimulation of a given nerve produces only one sensation, regardless of how it is stimulated.
Each nerve is most easily stimulated by one kind of energy
We are aware of our senses, not of physical reality. Contradicted "naïve realism"
Maintained that experience was more than neurology. Vitalism.

Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
Objected to Müller's vitalism.
Antivitalism oath, "No other forces than common physical-chemical ones are active within the organism."
Applied laws of the conservation of energy to living organisms
Measured the rate of nervous conduction
Countered the idea that the energy of the mind is non-material and instantaneous.
Invented the ophthalmoscope
Proposed a three-color theory of color vision
Explained accommodation of the lens

Perception - We add our "unconscious inference" to our sensations
The theory of signs: We receive "signs" or "tokens" of the outside world and actively construct a unified perception. Modern constructivism.

Hearing: Identified receptors for hearing, proposed a resonance place theory

Research on the Brain

Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and Johann Spurzheim (1776-1832).
Phrenology. Physical basis for faculties
Started the search for localized functions
Stimulated interest in assessment of individual differences, mental testing
Initially embraced but later ridiculed

Pierre Flourens (1794-1867)
Studied impairments caused by brain extirpation
"Mass action."

Paul Broca (1824-1880)
Relation between aphasia and left hemisphere injury
Famous patient "Tan"
Discovery of "Broca's area" reported in 1861.
Localization

Gustav Fritsch (1838-1927) and Edward Hitzig (1838-1907).
Direct stimulation caused effects.
Also first studies of electrical brain stimulation (in dogs)
Mapped much of motor cortex.

Ernst Weber (1795-1878).
Mapped two-point thresholds of the whole body (1834)
Studied weight comparisons.
Determined just-noticeable differences (jnd) in weight

Weber's law - first statement of the relationship between physical reality and psychological experience.
D R/R = kD R
The jnd is a constant fraction of the stimulus strength.

Gustav Fechner (1801-1887)
Believed that there was a spiritual side (the "day side") to science (the "night side")
Mind somehow connected to physical events.

Oct 22, 1850 - Insight to mathematical relationship.
Sensation=k log R(Stimulus).

Proposed methods of psychophysics in Elements of Psychophysics (1860).
Method of limits (method of just noticeable differences);
Method of constant stimuli (repeated presentations of same stimuli);
Method of adjustment (subject adjusts stimulus)
Used to determine absolute thresholds and difference thresholds for different senses.
Gave psychology a beginning subject matter and methods of independent and dependent variables.


UNIT 9: THE FOUNDING OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920).
First experimental laboratory in psychology, University of Leipzig,1879.
1. Psychology had outgrown its homes in philosophy and physiology.
2. A legitimate philosophy of mental analysis had developed.
3. Fechner's contribution of methods and quantitative laws of consciousness.

Brief biography

Wundt's psychology: Voluntarism
Major work: Outlines of Psychology (1897).

Study of consciousness and how it is affected by will, choice, and purpose. 
Rejected the materialistic side of empiricism
Believed thoughts were not physical in nature
Attempted to identify the elements of consciousness
Describe laws by which the elements are combined into complex experiences.
Only simple mental processes could be studied in laboratories
Complex processes could be studied in natural settings.

Began with studies using "thought meters" that found that people cannot attend to two stimuli at the same time.

Method of introspection

State of "strained attention"
Stimulus had to be variable -- concept of independent and dependent variable.
Sensations are composed of modality, intensity, and quality.
All sensations are accompanied by feelings
pleasant-unpleasant, excitement-calm, and strain-relaxation.

Many studies of perception (50%), emotion (10%), attention (10%), free associations (10%), reaction time (20%).

Reaction time studies used the methods of Donders and DeJaegre (1868)
Compared simple reaction time, discrimination reaction time, and choice reaction time
Modern cognitive psychology studies of mental chronometry.

Believed that complex experiences determined by the attention and will of the subject.
Cause and effect statements about complex thinking impossible, even though mental events are lawful:

a) Elements are combined by "creative synthesis"
b) Combining elements usually leads to the intended result and several unintended results
c) Elements often heighten perception of their opposites
d) Prolonged exposure to one element often heightens a search for its opposite

Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927) and American Structuralism

Brief biography
Philosophical interest: How is the mind related to the brain?
Goal: to make psychology free of philosophy

Psychology is the science of mind.
Mind is made up of accumulated experiences.
The experience is the basic unit of the mind.
A young science must first catalog its subject matter first.

Structuralism:

Method of analysis: Normal adults trained in introspection.
Assume state of "strained attention."
Avoid "stimulus error."

What are the basic, irreducible units?
1. Sensations (elements of perception):
    quality, intensity, duration, clarity external and internal sensations
    perhaps 40,000 elementary sensations
2. Images (elements of ideas) Not studied much.
3. Affections: quality, intensity, duration. quality varies along one dimension: pleasant-unpleasant

How are these combined to make complex experience, mind?
Elements that occur together in time are associated with each other. Contiguity.
Meaning also derives from contiguous context.

Never became part of American psychology.
- Never a US citizen, although at Cornell for 35 years
- After dispute with James Baldwin about reaction times, withdrew from APA, founded "The Experimentalists."
-Only published studies of adult humans

Problems:
Lack of agreement among introspectors,
American psychology developed interest in child development, individual differences, abnormal, animal behavior, applied, social.
With age became more dogmatic, developed interest in Arabian coins, which became more absorbing until death in 1927 at 60.

Other Early European Psychologists

Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

Rational, not empirical psychologist

Act Psychology
Emphasized mental functions and processes, not mental contents.
Acts have an object.
Opposed Wundt's use of the experiment and emphasis on physiology to study the mind.
Early form of functional psychology.

Carl Stumpf (1848-1936) -
Many studies of tone perception
Psychology should study active mental phenomena that occur in whole units.
"Clever Hans" episode.

Oswald Külpe (1862-1915) -
The Würzburg School of imageless thought.
Wundt's sensations, images, and feelings inadequate to account for mental experience.
Developed the concept of "mental set."

Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) -
Used a descriptive approach instead of an introspective approach.
Inspired by reading Fechner to study memory
Nonsense words: bidakupadotigolabuprelindu.
Studied rates of learning and forgetting
First retention curves.
Effects of overlearning, meaningfulness.
Experimental results were published as Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology in 1885.
Later contacted by school officials in Breslau to study best time of day for learning
Created a sentence completion and math facts intelligence test that formed a basis for Binet's later work


UNIT 10: DARWIN IN PSYCHOLOGY: VARIABILITY, INHERITANCE, AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Voyage of the Beagle.
Malthus's essay on population
Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 1859.

Impact on psychology:
Placed humans on the animal continuum.
Concept of inheritance of physical, mental, and behavioral features.
Concept of variability and individual differences.
Focus on adaptive value of features
Concept of selection of behaviors through consequences

Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)
Mental inheritance
Individual differences - "Anthropometric Laboratory"
Discovered normal distribution of mental abilities
Statistics - Developed early correlation coefficient,
Discovered "regression toward the mean."
Karl Pearson improved Galton's measure (Pearson's r).
Mental imagery - Breakfast table questionnaire
Found most people assume others have same abilities as their own

Eugenics ("good beginnings")

Other investigations:
- Discovered individuality of fingerprints
- Pitch sensitivity studies - Galton whistle in cane
- Weather forecasting: high, low, front terms
- reaction time and variability of word associations
- studied religious conviction by worshipping cover of Punch
- studied paranoia by believing in cart-horse conspiracy
- study of efficacy of prayer
- study of which country had the most beautiful women

The Mental Testing Movement

James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944)
First American professor of psychology
Founded Psychological Corporation
Founded Psychological Review, AAUP,
Edited Science
Began American Men of Science series, now American Men and Women of Science.

Promoted study of reaction time
Built mental measurement battery based mainly on reaction time measures
Later evidence showed no relation to school achievement

Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
Published observational studies: growth of his daughters Madeleine and Alice (1903)
Binet and Theodore Simon (1873-1961) appointed by French government
Binet's New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals was published in 1905.

New ideas:
Items graded in difficulty
Difficulty related to age of child
Child compared to others of same age
Intelligence is comprised of many skills
Intelligence was not innately restricted
Remedial training ("mental orthopedics") could improve intelligence

Concept of mental age
William Stern (1911) invented concept of I.Q. MA/CA X 100 (Terman)

Intelligence Testing in the United States

H. H. Goddard (1866-1957).
Translated the Binet-Simon test into English with Elizabeth Kite
Promoted eugenics and a genetic view of intelligence
Kallikak family study (1913).
Applied terms "idiot, imbecile, and moron" to intelligence levels (1910, 1916)
Testing program for immigrants

Lewis M. Terman (1877-1956)
Revised the Binet-Simon scales to yield an IQ of 100 at each age level.
Stanford-Binet
Believed that intelligence was largely determined by heredity
unitary,
relatively stable.
These perspectives are outlined in The Measurement of Intelligence (1916)
If you follow this link, be sure to read Minton's introduction and commentary.)
Differed from Binet in these judgments
Longitudinal study of genius

Leta Stetter Hollingworth Image  (1886-1939)
Applied studies in intelligence:
No gender differences
No impairment during menstruation.
Showed that many cases of "mental deficiency"actually social or emotional impairment.
Studies of gifted children led educational enrichment methods

Robert M. Yerkes Image  Image (1876-1956)-
Intelligence scale for group administration (1917).
Army Alpha and Army Beta (for non-English or illiterate).
Raised concern about national intelligence,
Data wrongly used to promote theories of racial superiority.

Walter Dill Scott (1869-1955)
Applied psychology to advertising, selling, personnel placement.
Devised "Soldier's Qualification Card,"


UNIT 11 : AMERICAN FUNCTIONALISM

Functionalism stresses adaptive nature of mind and behavior.
Darwinian influence.
Functional processes instead of static states.
Practical, applied science.
Broad subject matter (e. g. child, abnormal, animal)
Interest in individual differences.

Charles S. Peirce Image  Image  (1839-1914)
Pragmatism
Practicality of ideas is important
Elected to the National Academy of Science in 1877

William James Image  Image  Image  Image  (1842-1910)
Basically a philosopher
Opposed Wundtian psychology
Founded laboratory of demonstration materials in 1875.
Very influential texts
Principles of Psychology (1890) (A "Great Book")
Psychology: The Briefer Course

Consciousness:
Highly personal
Cannot be reduced to elements
Constantly changing
Selective, with a focus and fringes
Functional, responds to environment, adapts one to environment.

Habit formation - Like modern field of learning.
Arrange a favorable situation
Don't allow behavior incompatible with the good habit
Don't attempt gradual change
Behavior is more important than intentions
First attempts at the new behavior may be difficult or unpleasant. Learning applied to teaching: Talks to Teachers (1899)

Self psychology
Defined material, social, and spiritual selves.
"Self as knower" function
Defined self-esteem, affected by ratio of aspirations and achievements.

Emotion - James-Lange (Carl Lange) theory of emotion

Other Early American Psychologists

Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916)
Harvard in 1897 to direct James's laboratory
Interest in applications of psychology to everyday problems.
Founder of applied psychology
Books: On the Witness Stand (1908); Psychology and the Teacher (1909);
Psychotherapy (1909); Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913).
Criticism of American society and WW I led to ostracism

Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)
Denied PhD by Harvard in 1895.
Invented the paired-associate method
First woman president of the APA (1905)
Self psychology: Science of immediate experience of the self.

G. (Granville) Stanley Hall (1844 - 1924)
First to earn a PhD in psychology in America,
Developmental psychology
Distinguished adolescence from childhood.
Recapitulation theory: ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny.
Publishing
First American journal of psychology, the American Journal of Psychology (1887)
Pedagogical Seminary (now Journal of Genetic Psychology) in 1891
Psychological Index (1894), an early form of Psychological Abstracts
Journal of Applied Psychology (1915).
Founding of the APA
June 8, 1892, founding
First annual meeting Dec. 27, 1892.
Brief early history

John Dewey (1859-1952)
Functional analysis of behavior
Article: "The reflex arc concept in psychology" (1896)
S and R make up a whole functional relationship
Mind and behavior are functional instruments of adaptation
Educational psychology
Instrumentalism. Education should proceed by actions. Learning by doing.

James Rowland Angell (1869-1949)
1906 APA presidential address, The Province of Functional Psychology, defined Functionalism
a) interest in relations among mental operations instead of conscious elements
b) mental processes had adaptive, survival function
c) mind and body were one
Encouraged growth of animal psychology, child psychology, applied psychology, learning, individual differences

Harvey Carr (1873-1954)
Functional analysis of learning
Comprised of motive, environmental setting, and consummatory act
Increasingly turned to animal research, integrated physiology, sensation, perception

Robert Sessions Woodworth Image (1869-1962)
Interest was in motivation for behavior
Stimulus - Organism - Response (S-O-R).
The internal state of the organism activates behavior
Behavioral mechanisms themselves can become drives (secondary motives)
Experimental Psychology (1938)

Edward Lee Thorndike Image  Image  Image  (1874-1949)
Thorndike built on the work of
George John Romanes Image 
Conwy Lloyd Morgan Image (Morgan's canon.)
Margaret Floy Washburn - The first woman to receive a PhD in psychology, 1894.

Many studies of animal behavior, Animal Intelligence (1911).
Studied behavior in controlled conditions, not natural settings.
Cat puzzle boxes

Learning was incremental
Occurs automatically (without thinking)
Same in all animals
Connections are thus formed between stimuli and responses ("Connectionism").
Law of effect: behaviors strengthened or weakened by "satisfying" or "annoying" consequences.
Law of exercise: behaviors were strengthened or weakened by use and disuse alone.
Applied the psychology of learning to instructional practice.
Educational Psychology (1903)


UNIT 12: EARLY BEHAVIORISM

Objective study of observable behavior
Anti-mentalistic
Laws of behavior applied to humans and animals
Language is the same as any other behavior
Functional analysis of relation between environment and behavior.

Russian Objective Psychology
Behaviorism with a physiological twist.

Ivan M. Sechenov Image  (1829-1905)
Existence of inhibitory functions of nerves.
Behavior a balance between excitation and inhibition
All behavior caused by external stimulation
Consciousness is just another behavior
Reductionism

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Discovered the conditioned reflex in the course of studies of digestion, used dogs as subjects.
His Conditioned reflexes: An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex was published in 1927.
Identification of UCS, UCR, CS, CR
extinction (inhibition)
spontaneous recovery (disinhibition)
experimental neurosis
Disliked psychology because of mentalism

Vladimir Bechterev Image  (1857-1927)
Reflexology

American Behaviorism

John Broadus Watson (1878-1958)
Johns Hopkins in 1908
"Psychology as the behaviorist sees it" 1913
(If you follow that link, be sure to see the accompanying introduction and commentary)
Behavior, An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, 1914
President of the APA at age 38, in 1915
Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist, 1919
J. Walter Thompson advertising agency, 1920
Behaviorism,1924

Watson's behaviorism:
Emphasis on conditioned reflex and habit
S-R (stimulus-response) bonds: Contiguity, frequency, and recency
No place for consequences (reinforcement, punishment, etc).
Mental events could not be studied scientifically
Stimulus could be external or internal
Responses: explicit (overt) or implicit (covert), learned or instinctive behavior

Language was just another kind of overt learned behavior.
Thought was subvocal speech.

Emotions were reflexive reactions (famous "Little Albert" study)
Fear (loud noises, loss of support),
Rage (restriction)
Love (stroking, patting)
Child rearing advice

William McDougall (1871-1938)
Psychology the study of behavior, but behavior reflects mental events
Hormic psychology stressed purposive behavior
Opposed Watson's behaviorism. "Battle of Behaviorism" debate in 1924.

Instincts
a) oriented organism toward a goal,
b) directed the organism's behavior
c) provided emotional tone to events
Long lists of instincts to account for behavior


UNIT 13: NEOBEHAVIORISM

Behaviorism's dilemma
Generalization from separate observations necessary, but generalities were viewed as mentalistic.

Operationism: (Percy Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, 1927)
Unobservable forces must be defined in observable terms.
Restored mentalistic terms to theories, through operational definitions
Promoted in psychology by Edwin G. Boring (1923), S. S. Stevens (1935)

Logical positivism: Rudolph Carnap (1923)
Philosophical problems result of language references to things which have no material existence.
Replace ordinary language with "ideal logical language."
Physicalism and the Unity of Science movement

Neobehaviorism
Theoretical terms linked to observations by correspondence rules
Science has an observational side and a theoretical side.
Observation is superior to theory.
Theories must be made to conform to observations
Neobehaviorists accepted operationism and logical positivism
Theoretical terms were not to be assumed to be real entities.
All mentalistic terms were to be operationally defined

Edward C. Tolman Image  (1886-1959)
Brief biography Image 

Purposive behaviorism - objectivity without mechanism.
Cognitive structures, such as expectancy and cognitive maps
Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men (1932)
"Molar" rather than "molecular" behaviorism
Behavior is based on hypotheses and expectancies
Stimuli are linked by learning to other stimuli; S-S theory.
Latent learning studies, cognitive map studies.

Clark Hull Image  (1884-1952) and Kenneth Spence (1907-1967)
Mathematical relations among environmental, organismic, and response variables.
No mentalistic terms needed.
A Behavior System (1952)
Hypothetico-deductive theory of behavior
Major concepts: drive;
reinforcement (drive reduction);
habit strength (number of reinforced S-R pairings)

Burrhus Frederic Skinner Image  Image  Image  Image  (1904-1990)
The Behavior of Organisms (1938)
Walden II (1948)
Science and Human Behavior (1953)
Verbal Behavior (1957),
Cumulative Record (1959)
Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971).
Judged the most influential American psychologist of 20th century.
APA's first Lifetime Contribution to Psychology Award (1990).

Operant conditioning
Operant: freely-emitted behavior that influences the environment
Strength altered by consequences
Environment selects behavior by reinforcement, extinction, punishment
Reinforcers and punishers defined by functional relation to strength of behavior
"Three-term contingency:" environment-response-consequence.

Descriptive behaviorism - Mentalistic terms are eliminated
Does not deny the existence of "private events," but

Practical contributions:


UNIT 14: GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY

Gestalt psychology a reaction against the elementism of Wundt.
Main premises:
(a) the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
(b) psychology is the study of mental phenomena in naïve observers (phenomenology)
(c) relations between events tend to be organized in predictable ways

Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
Studies of phi phenomenon, Gestalt laws of perception
Emigrated to US in 1933

Kurt Koffka (1886-1941)
Principles of Gestalt Psychology(1935)

Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967)
Experiments with insight learning in chimpanzees on Tenerife.
Emigrated in 1935
His article, Gestalt Psychology Today, was widely read and discussed.

Gestalt field theory
Conscious experience is the result of electrochemical fields in the brain
Exist before stimulation,
respond to stimulation,
alter the nature of the stimulus.
Primary process is the interaction between the brain and the environment
Experience is a by-product of this interaction.

Isomorphism -
Structure of brain field and structure of experience have same form.
(vs. constancy hypothesis: structure of stimulus and structure of experience are same).
We are aware of the brain, not of the physical world.

Prägnanz - fields will be as balanced, symmetrical, orderly, simple, regular, as conditions possible
Perceptual constancies - Size, color, shape, etc
Constancies are not learned but are the result of brain fields.
Gestalten - Wholes of perception
Examples: Figure-ground relationships,
Laws of perceptual organization (similarity, proximity, continuity, closure, inclusiveness).

Learning occurs when perceptual elements are organized into a meaningful whole.
Learning occurs suddenly, as the result of insight.
Köhler's and Perkins's transposition experiments with chickens and goldfish.
What is learned is a relationship, not a stimulus value.

Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). Applications of Gestalt psychology

Personality theory - Person is an element in a field of positive and negative valences.
Life space.
Elements have valences only to the extent they are represented in the person's present. Approach and avoidance combine to move person, produce conflicts.

Ziegarnik effect

Group Dynamics
Leadership, communication, cohesiveness, goals, conformity, norms, interpersonal attraction, reference groups, power, cooperation and competition.
T-groups- Application of group dynamics research in real groups.

Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger)

Action research
Solve real problems through a scientific, data-based approach.
Favored field research.
Organizational psychology strongly influenced by Lewin.

Aristotelian v. Galilean views of science. See Chapter 1 notes.


UNIT 15: EARLY CONCEPTIONS OF MENTAL ILLNESS

The nature of abnormal behavior
Infrequent (statistically unusual)
Deviant (violates social norms, culturally defined)
Maladaptive (injurious to self or others)
Disorganized (unstable, unpredictable, impulsive behavior)
Unrealistic thoughts and perceptions (delusions, hallucinations)

Medical Model
Abnormal behaviors are symptoms of underlying disease

Psychological Model
Abnormal behaviors result from emotional, cognitive, behavioral experiences.
Disagreement about conscious/unconscious nature of experiences,
role of learning vs. emotional causes.

Supernatural Model:
Demonic possession, magical forces, divine forces.
Malleus Maleficarum (1487) a good example of supernatural system.
Emotional disorders caused by voluntary association with a devil.
Hundreds of thousands of witches tried and executed Image  in 15th-17th centuries.
The first book in English on mental illness, Timothie Bright's A Treatise of Melancholie, cites medical and religious causes of mental illness.
Salem witchcraft trials - 20 executed in summer of 1692.
Last witch executed in Europe in Switzerland in 1782

Early reformers:
Released from shackles and confinement Image  but
used bleedings, purgatives, ice water Image , insulin shock, spinning Image , confinement, masking.
The Rush "Tranquillizer" Image  chair, the Elwyn crib Image .

Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
Unchained the ill at the Bicêtre and Salpêtrière Asylums in 1793 and 1795
Assisted by Pussin.
Initiated occupational therapy.
Segregated different types of patients.
Began practice of maintaining records on patient progress, rates of cure

William Tuke (1732-1822)
Founded the York Retreat in 1792.
A working farm in a pastoral setting.
Removed from public display, such as that at Bethlehem ("Bedlam") Asylum in London.

Vincenzo Chiarugi - Superintendent (1788) of the first mental hospital supported by a public law, in Florence, Italy.
Provided work, recreation, case histories.

Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) - Promoted humane treatment in U.S.,
Discontinued practice of public display.
Still used spinning, bloodletting, "Tranquillizer chair," to quiet patients.

Founding of early mental hospitals in America:
Pennsylvania Hospital 1752;
Publick Hospital for the Insane, Williamsburg, 1773;
Maryland Hospital, 1798;
Friends Hospital, 1817;
McLean Hospital (Belmont, MA) 1818;
Bloomingdale Asylum, 1824.
Adoption of Kirkbride Plan Image Image Image - 1851.

Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802-1887)
Wrote many "Memorials" to state legislatures, beginning with Massachusetts.
Crusaded for better hospitals.
New Jersey Lunatic Asylum at Trenton, 1848
Government Hospital for the Insane (St. Elizabeth's Hospital)

Emil Kraepelin Image (Image 1856-1926)
Early nosology vareid greatly, focused on form or cause of illness. Image Image Image
Kraepeling devised a standard nomenclature for mental illness
Described causes, symptoms, and cures for each type.
Coined dementia, manic-depressive, neurosis, paranoia
Kraepelin focused on the form (not content)of disturbed though
Promotion of medical model may have delayed further progress in etiology and treatment.

"Moral treatment" model -
From York Retreat, became very popular in America.
Mental illness can result from brain injury or disease, but also stems from stress, overwork, religious fanaticism, or masturbation.
Treatment consists of removal to tranquil setting, good nutrition, meaningful labor, prevention of masturbation.
Moral treatment discredited in late 1800s, but stage was set for medical-psychological antagonism of later years.

Use of photographs in early therapy: Finding differences between normal and abnormal faces Image  Image   , self awarnessmethod. Image

Clinical psychology and Lightner Witmer Image (1867-1956)
Inaugurated the world's first psychological clinic (1896)
First used the term "psychological clinic"
Training program for clinical psychologists
Founded a journal of clinical psychology

Hypnotism and Mental Illness

Franz Anton Mesmer Image Image (1734-1815)
Claimed "animal magnetism" could cure conversion disorders.
Positive and Negative effects of Mesmer:
Positive:
(a) physical symptoms could be produced and alleviated by experiences
(b) suggested that behavior is not always rational
(c) causes of behavior not always conscious
(d) traumatic memories could affect later behaviors,
awareness of memories could relieve troublesome behaviors.
(e) promoted further study of connection between hypnosis (Braid) and hysteria
Bernheim, Charcot, and Janet.
Negative:
(a) practiced quackery: Claimed real cures when only placebo effect was active.
(b) "animal magnetism" relied on unseen forces as explanations of behavior.

Nancy School, headed by Auguste Liébeault and Hippolyte Bernheim Image (1840-1919)
Demonstrated link between hypnosis and hysteria,
Contended that hysteria was mental in origin, could be cured by suggestion under hypnosis.

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)
Saw hypnosis as a physiological phenomenon,
Thought hysteria caused by physical defect, believed hypnotizability indicated its presence. Physical defect could have been aroused by traumatic ideas
Later recanted, concluded that the Nancy School was correct.

Pierre Janet (1859-1947)
Saw hypnosis as a psychological phenomenon.
Thought it gave access to "dissociated" parts of one's personality
Awareness of dissociated parts would relieve physical symptoms.
Precursor of insight therapies


CHAPTER 16: FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Lasting influences (from neo-Freudian Karen Horney):
1. Concept of an active unconscious that motivates behavior
2. Exposition of the irrational, symbolic, emotional nature of behavior
3. Assertion that all behaviors have a cause, none are accidental.
Psychological determinism.

Sources of Freudian ideas:
The unconscious - Leibnitz.
Conflict between ideas for conscious awareness -- Herbart:
Irrationality of motives - Schopenhauer.
Negative attitude toward religion, importance of primitive motives - Nietzsche
Importance of instincts - Darwin
Conservation of energy - Helmholtz
Influence of motives on thoughts - Brentano
Strength of unseen forces - Jewish mysticism
Interest in the meaning of dreams - Scherner, Maury in 1860s
Interest in sexual behavior, sexual disorders - Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Wilhelm Fleiss

Freud's life and some photos:
Birth,  family circumstances 
Early schooling
Strong influence of Ernst Brücke. Got Freud to look at humans as part of natural world.
Experimented with cocaine
Small grant in 1885 to go to Paris to study with Charcot
Convinced Freud that hysteria occurs in men, is psychogenic, similar to hypnotic state.
Set up practice in Vienna in 1886 with Josef Breuer  at Suite 3-4, 19 Bergasse , Anna O case
 

Freud began using cathartic method in 1889.
Problems of symptom substitution and resistance to hypnosis.
Developed method of free association to accomplish the same thing
Repression and resistance showed that therapist was on the right track
Dreams represent wish fulfillments (1895)
Sounded out early ideas with Wilhelm Fleiss
Published Interpretation of Dreams in 1899
Published Psychopathology of Everyday Life in 1904.
Seduction theory of hysteria (1896
Later altered to be a theory of imagined seduction, childhood sexuality.

Association with Alfred Adler began around 1902, Carl Jung in 1907,
Otto Rank, A. A. Brill, Ernest Jones at about 1908.
Freud's trip to Clark University 1909
Text of lectures was published as The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis in 1910.
(If you follow that link, be sure to read Fancher's introduction and commentary.)
Breakup with Adler over power and inferiority, 1911
Break with Jung over sexuality, 1913
Secret committee of loyal followers (Abraham, Rank, Jones, Sachs, and Ferenczi).
Freud's home in Vienna was overrun by Nazis 15 Mar 1938
Freud fled Austria, went to London on June 4, 1938 and died there on September 23, 1939.

Freud's theory of normal personality:
Id - instinctive energy ("libido")
primitive, impulsive, operates by pleasure principle
unable to distinguish fantasy from reality, subconscious;
Ego - reality principle
channels libido through cathexis (object choice).
Superego - "Internalized parent,"
social rewards and punishments
irrational, absolutistic, made up of conscience and ego-ideal.

Ego's job is very difficult. Faces threats from the id ("neurotic anxiety")
and the super-ego ("moral anxiety").
Defends through defense mechanisms:
sublimation, projection, reaction formation, identification, rationalization, repression.

Stages of development: Oral (incorporative, sadistic types); Anal (expulsive, retentive types); Phallic (emergence of gender roles); Latency; Genital.

Criticisms of Freud:
Method of data collection very subjective
Concepts poorly operationalized
Dogmatic, charismatic personal style
Overemphasis on sex
Self-fulfilling research: Patients were guided to confirm Freud's theories
Psychoanalysis long and costly
Lack of a falsifiable theory.


UNIT 17: EARLY ALTERNATIVES TO PSYCHOANALYSIS

Anna Freud (1895-1982).
Orthodox Freudian
Emphasized the psychoanalysis of children and the ego
Children develop along several developmental lines
Refined and systematized Freud's list of defense mechanisms.

The Neo-Freudians: Jung, Adler, and Horney:
Less emphasis on sex, more emphasis on social motives
More emphasis on conscious, rational functions ("ego psychology")
More individual, less generic.

Alfred Adler Image   Image  (1870-1937)
Power and superiority as the primary psychological motive
Because children are dependent on others, we all have deep-rooted feelings of inferiority
Compensation: strengthening other areas
Overcompensation: trying to defeat our weakness, making it a strength.
"Inferiority complex:" One uses weakness as an excuse to stop compensating
Mental illness results
"Lifestyle:" pattern of ways to overcome weakness and exert power over others
One can exert personal choice over mental health

Carl Jung Image Image Image (1875-1961)
Forces of personality more broad, spiritual, and humanistic
Conflict, causing maladjustment, extended beyond the id-ego-superego triad

Personality types
introverted v. extraverted type,
masculine v. feminine type,
rational (thinking and evaluating) v. irrational (sensing, and intuiting) type.

Largely conscious, goal-directed
Events were sometimes synchronized to change the course of one's life.
Very teleological and somewhat occult.

Unconscious: personal unconscious, and collective unconscious
archetypes: examples: persona, anima and animus, shadow

Self-actualization: all the parts of personality in harmony.
Cross-cultural research, folk tales, dreams, art

Karen Horney (1885-1952)
Biography
Emphasized social sources of motivation, like Erikson, Sullivan, Fromm.
Believed feminine psychology based on lack of confidence, overemphasis on love.
Causes of mental illness: conflict between individual and social demands.

basic trust vs mistrust (Erikson's terms)
basic evil or mistrust of the world
"basic hostility" towards one's parents and, later, toward others.
"basic anxiety"
Coping by moving toward, against, or away from people,
becoming a compliant, hostile, or detached type.
Neurotic solutions to anxiety
Difference between normal and neurotic is one of degree.


UNIT 18: HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY

Non-scientific, possibly anti-scientific, movement of the 1960s and 1970s
Reaction against the mechanism of behaviorism
Reaction against unconscious, instinctive motives of psychoanalysis.
"Third force" psychology.

Themes of Humanistic Psychology
(a) belief in human uniqueness,
(b) a view that subjective reality superior to objective reality, is primary determinant of behavior
(c) growth, self-actualization, authenticity, and normalcy are natural potentials of all humans,
(d) people have free will and are responsible for their actions,
(e) meaningfulness is the primary goal of life,
(f) individual should be the primary focus of study (idiographic),
(g) psychology should focus on how to actualize human potential
(h) social forces distort normal personality, causes of mental illness

Philosophical background
Phenomenology: study of immediate conscious experience, without analysis
Existentialism: what it is to be human, nature of human uniqueness.

Martin Heidegger Image Image(1889-1976).
Being fully human means acceptance of mortality and one's unity with the world.
Person and world are inseparable ("dasein" or "being-in-the-world").
All observations about the world are ultimately statements about ourselves.
We and the world are always in the process of change or "becoming."
Distinction between "authentic" and "inauthentic" person.
Personal responsibility for authenticity

Variations:
Ludwig Binswanger (1881-1966):
Integrated existentialism and psychotherapy.
One designs one's own world view ("Weltanschauung") and lives in it.
Material world, social world, and private world,
Past is important only as it is represented in the present, the here-and-now.
Meaning is the primary requirement of an authentic life.

Rollo May (1909-1994)
Freedom carries responsibility, uncertainty, and normal anxiety.
Fear of freedom creates neurotic anxiety, retreat from the world.
Betrayal of authentic self results in "self-alienation."

George Kelly (1905-1967).
Adjustment a matter of how person choose to view things, their construct systems
Role construct repertory test, or "rep test."
Personality is channelled by the ways in which one anticipates events
People view events in ways that confirm and extend their constructs.
Anxiety caused by events outside the "range of convenience" of construct system. Psychotherapy is the psychological reconstruction of life, through fixed-role therapy.

Humanistic Psychology

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970).
Observations of "good behavior"
Characterization of the "self-actualized" person.
Founded humanistic or "third-force" psychology

Hierarchy of needs:
Physiological Safety Belonging and Love Esteem Self-actualization.

Carl Rogers (1902-1987).
Applied humanistic psychology to the therapeutic setting.
Maladjustment is result of authentic self being replaced by conditions of worth
Person-centered therapy emphasizes client's contact with their own subjective reality
Therapeutic setting should provide unconditional positive regard
Natural organismic valuing process selects behaviors that will lead to self-actualization. Therapy allows expression of the authentic self
attainment of congruence between perceived real self and ideal self


UNIT 19: PSYCHOBIOLOGY

Behavior Genetics and New Nativism
Ascendence of genetic explanations: ethology, sociobiology, intelligence studies, personality
Linguistic approach of Noam Chomsky
  Learning process is too simple to explain language
  Innate disposition for category formation, grammar
Ethology of Lorenz, Tinbergen, von Frisch, Breland and Breland
Emphasis on genetic substrates of behavior.


UNIT 20: COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

Cognitive psychology
Focus on unobservable processes and elements of thinking, such as memory, beliefs, concepts, attention, reasoning, problem solving, heuristics, language, causal attribution.
Nativistic
Revived voluntarism, structuralism, and mentalistic aspects of functionalism. Incorporates phenomenalism of Gestalt and humanistic psychology
Thoughts, beliefs provide schemata that cause observable behavior.
Examples: Studies of problem solving, concept formation, heuristics, attributional style
[Behavioral view - thought is a collateral response to events, just like any other behavior]
[Psychodynamic view - less important than instincts, emotions.]
Integrates computer science, neurology, linguistics, economics, decision theory, information theory.

Information processing models of learning and memory.
George A. Miller's magic number 7 article
Much language borrowed from computer models: Input, processing, output, storage, program, retrieval, bandwidth, etc. Some applications in programmed instruction. 
Information theory, mathematical modeling.


UNIT 21
CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY

Professionalization of psychology
Historic division between academic/scientific psychologists and professional practitioners.
Before 1945, APA tended to represent scientists
Reorganization of the APA in 1944. Divisions represent special interests. 19 to begin with.
Post war, professional psychology, primarily clinical and counseling psychology, expanded.
American Psychological Society 1988, now called the Association for Psychological Science

Training standards for clinical psychology:
Post-war increase in demand for clinical and counseling psychologists
VA contacts APA about training standards for clinical psychologists. 
State psychological associations certify, then state legislatures adopt standards
Boulder model (Ph.D.; scientist-practitioner)
Vail model (Psy. D.; professional schools)
APA accreditation in clinical, counseling, school, and professional-scientific psychology

Modernism and Postmodernism
Modernism: Enlightenment science: universalism, objectivity, rational inquiry, logical deduction, external reality
Postmodernism: realtivism, subjectivity, personal and social reality, language creates reality.

Reprise: Persistent Dichotomies
1. Conscious mentalism-Unconscious mentalism
2. Behaviorism - Mentalism
3. Determinism-Indeterminism
4. Empiricism-Rationalism
5. Functionalism-Structuralism
6. Mechanism - Vitalism:
7. Molecularism-Molarism
8. Monism - Dualism