PLAIN SEAM

1. Cut two pieces of fabric from the pattern. Use as your pattern, the piece marked #l-seams. Align the long edge of the paper pattern with the lengthwise grain of the fabric, along the selvage edges.

2. Place right sides of the fabric together, matching the seam edges of the pieces that correspond to the seam to be sewn. Pin in place if necessary.

3. Using a 5/8" seam allowance, sew the fabric pieces together on the long end of the rectangle.

4. First press the seam flat and then press it open using the point of the iron to completely flatten the seam out. (Fig.2) See the sections-on pressing and pressing equipment.

Prepare three plain seams. Two of these will be used for the exercise on seam finishes. The other is to be turned in for grading.

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PLAIN SEAM - LAPPED APPLICATION

1. Cut one piece of fabric from each of the two pattern pieces marked LAPPED SEAM

2. Stay stitch the seams that are to be lapped. (Fig. 1)

3. On the smaller piece, folding on the seam line turn the seam allowance to the wrong side of the fabric and press in place. (Fig. 2)

4. Pin the piece prepared in Step 3 to the other section matching seam lines, notches, and seam edges.

5. Top stitch the seam in place close to the seam line.

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FLAT FELL SEAM 1. Prepare a plain seam using a 5/8" SA.

2. After pressing the seam open press both SA's in the same direction.

3. Trim the underneath SA only to 1/4".

4. Fold the untrimmed SA over the trimmed SA and pin or baste in place.

5. Top stitch the folded edge in place.

NOTE: Top stitching is machine or hand stitching through all layers of fabric. Top stitching will be visible on both the right and wrong sides of the piece that is top stitched.

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FRENCH SEAM

1. Cut two pieces of fabric using the #l-SEAMS pattern.

2. Match the wrong side of the fabric and sew a plain seam using a 1/4" SA. This seam should have the raw edges on the right side of the fabric when you have finished sewing.

3. Turn the seam over so that the wrong side of the fabric faces you. The raw edges should be on the bottom, away from you. Fold along the seam line and press in place. (Fig, 2)

4. Sew a second seam using a 3/8" SA on the wrong side of the fabric. This second seam should completely encase the first seam, thus clean finishing all edges.

5. Press the seam to one side.

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SEAM FINISHES

This exercise is to be done on the seam edges of the two plain seams with the 5/8" seam allowances prepared previously.

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SINGLE EDGE STITCH.

1. With the stitch length set between 2 and 3, place a single row of stitching close to the seam edge.

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DOUBLE EDGE STITCH.

1. Begin as for single edge stitch.

2. Place a second row of machine stitching just inside the first row of stitching about l/16" away.

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CLEAN FINISH.

l. Begin as for single edge stitch.

2. Turn the edge of the seam to the inside along the row of stitching and press in place.

3. Top stitch the turned edge in place sewing through the seam allowance only.

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ZIG-ZAG FINISH.

1. Begin as for single edge stitch.

2. Adjust the stitch length to between 3 and 4.

3. Adjust the stitch width to between 2 and 3.

4. Sew a row of zig zag stitching along the seam edge, placing the zig-zag stitch so that one stitch fall inside the row of edge stitching and the other falls just outside the seam edge.

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SERGED FINISH.

l. Use a raw edge on any of the plain seams that you have just applied seam finishes to.

2. Apply a three thread serged finish ( in any color) right on the raw edge, making sure that you trim only the small threads off the raw edge.

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INTERFACINGS

1. Cut out one piece of surface fabric using the pattern marked FITTED FACING FOR BODICE ARMHOLE. Make sure that the pattern piece is placed on the right side of the fabric with the notations on the pattern visible.

2. Cut out one piece of interfacing using the same pattern piece as in Step 1. REMEMBER that when using woven interfacing, the grain of the interfacing must match the grain of the surface fabric.

3. Place the woven interfacing on the WRONG side of the Fitted Facing for Bodice Armhole aligning all notches and pin securely in place.

4. Starting at the center of the longest side sew along the edge, pivot at the corner, and so on until you have sewn completely around the fitted facing piece. Use a 1/2" S.A. as you attach the interfacing to the fitted facing.

5. Trim away the interfacing only from the seam allowance as close as possible to the stitching line. BE CAREFUL NOT TO SNIP THE SURFACE FABRIC, cut only the interfacing.

6. Press the fitted facing flat. Press first on the right side, and then on the wrong side. The applied interfacing should be flat, smooth, and closely applied to the surface fabric so that it supports the surface without wrinkling or bubbling.

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Non-woven Interfacing:

1. Cut one piece of surface fabric using the pattern marked BODICE CUFF.

2. Cut one piece of non-woven interfacing using the pattern marked CUFF INTERFACING.

3. Place the interfacing on the WRONG side of the cuff, aligning the notches.

4. Starting in the center of the longest side sew towards the corner, pivot and sew up to the end of the interfacing. Return to the center point and sew down the other side, pivot and sew to the end of the interfacing.

5. Trim the interfacing away along the sewn edges as close as possible to, but not through the stitching lines.

6. Repeat Step #6 on the sewing exercise for WOVEN INTERFACING for pressing.

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Fusible Interfacing:

1. Cut one piece of surface fabric using the pattern marked SKIRT WAISTBAND.

2. Cut one piece of fusible interfacing using the pattern marked FUSIBLE INTERFACING FOR WAISTBAND.

3. Place the treated side of the interfacing on the WRONG side of the surface fabric, aligning the notches. Pin in place.

4. Cover the ironing table or board with a scrap of muslin. Place the waistband with the interfacing towards you over the muslin. Beginning in the middle of the waistband, steam and set the fusible interfacing in place. REMEMBER to steam the interfacing in place in a random pattern.

5. Remove the pins from the waistband. Turn the waistband over and press the surface side of the fabric. Make sure that you have the waistband aligned over the muslin scrap. Be sure to check for areas that are not properly fused.

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FLAT LINING and STAY STITCHING

This exercise is done on a Size 8 bodice.

1. Cut out the bodice back and front of the pattern in muslin. Remember to check the grainline and fold line on the pattern before cutting.

2. Transfer all markings, including all seam lines to the muslin using tracing paper and wheel.

3. Open out all the muslin pieces and pin them to the wrong side of the fabric to be flat lined, being sure to align the grain with that of the surface fabric and checking that the traced markings on the muslin pieces are facing you.

4. Carefully pin the flat lining to the surface fabric and cut out the surface pieces using the muslin pieces as a pattern.

5. Sew the muslin to the surface fabric using a single edge seam finish.

6. Run a row of machine basting over the stitching lines for the darts.

7. Stay stitch all seam lines on garment bias. (Fig. 1)

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DARTS

This exercise is to be done on the Size 8 bodice which was prepared in the Flat lining exercise.

1. Fold the darts, right sides of the fabric together, so that the sewing lines meet. Pin carefully in place.

2. With a regular machine stitch, sew the darts in place. Begin sewing at the widest end and finish at the pointed end. Backstitch only at the widest end of the dart.

3. Secure the threads at the point of the dart with a tailor's knot.

4. Press the darts using the following conventions:
(a) darts oriented vertically are pressed towards CF or CB.
(b) darts horizontally oriented are pressed towards the bottom of the garment piece.

NOTE: Darts should be pressed on a TAILOR'S HAM or some other rounded surface that conforms to the shape of the garment piece.

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GATHERS, Button Thread method.

This exercise is based on using the gathered piece to create a dirndl skirt for the Size 8 bodice prepared previously.

Prepare the fabric:

1. Cut a piece of fabric 18" long and the full width of the fabric.

2. Finish the edges of this piece of fabric with a seam finish that will not reduce the seam allowance.

Prepare the gathers as follows:

3. Set the stitch width indicator on the widest possible zig zag stitch.

4. Place a spool of BUTTON THREAD on the second spool pin. Choose a color that does not match the surface fabric.

5. Pull the button thread down so that 6" extends beyond the edge of the fabric to be gathered and center the thread under the presser foot.

6. On one of the long sides of the fabric, sew a row of zig zag stitches on top of the button thread, making sure that at no time does the needle pierce the button thread. Use a 1/2" SA and place the stitches on the WRONG side of the fabric.

7. At the end of the fabric, DO NOT BACKSTITCH, and leave about 6" of the button thread extending off the fabric.

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GATHERS, Three-Thread method.

1. Cut a piece of surface fabric using the pattern marked RIGHT SLEEVE FOR BODICE.

2. Stay stitch along the slash line at the bottom of the sleeve. This slash will be used in another exercise.

3. Set the machine stitch length on the longest possible stitch.

4. The bottom edge of the sleeve will be gathered. Using a 5/8" SA place one row of basting stitches along the sleeve. DO NOT BACKSTITCH AT ANY TIME. When you reach the slash, pull the sewing thread so that approximately 3" extends into the slash, clip. Begin sewing on the opposite side of the slash, leaving 3" extending at the end of the sleeve.

5. Place a second row of gathering stitches using a 1/4" SA.

6. Place a third row of gathering stitches between rows #1 and#2.

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ATTACHING GATHERS TO ANOTHER GARMENT PIECE

This exercise will be done on the Size 8 bodice pieces and the dirndl skirt prepared previously.

1. Complete the bodice by stitching the shoulder and side seams using a 5/8" SA. Press seams open.

2. Using chalk mark the skirt off in quarters along the gathered edge.

3. Pull the button thread in the skirt up until the skirt width approximately matches the bodice waistline seam.

4. With RIGHT sides together pin the skirt to the bodice, matching: First quarter mark to the side seam. Half way mark to CF of the bodice. Third quarter mark to the second side seam.

5. Distribute the gathers evenly between pins. This is done by moving the gathers by hand, pin the gathers in place as you work. Make sure there are no gathers in the 5/8" SA at CB of the skirt. Check to see that you pin the bodice flat with the darts going towards CF or CB.

6. Place the garment in the machine, with the GATHERED side facing up. Stitch the bodice to the skirt using a 5/8" SA. This allows you to control the gathers are the stitching is completed.

Remove pins and check the seam carefully to make sure you have not caught the fabric of the bodice in the seam. Correct any errors.

8. Carefully press the SA toward the bodice. The pressing should be done with the point of the iron so that the gathers are not flattened by the iron.

9. Complete the CB seam of the skirt up to 6"from the waistline seam. Press this seam open.

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KNIFE PLEATS

Cut a piece of fabric using the KNIFE PLEATS pattern.

1. Transfer markings.

2. Prepare the fabric by using a seam finish that will not reduce the SA.

3. On the RIGHT side of the fabric mark along both lengthwise edges at 2" intervals with tailor's chalk. Begin the 2" intervals at the traced markings transferred in Step #1.

4. Using a ruler and chalk, connect the markings made in Step #3.

5. On the RIGHT side fold the fabric along the SECOND mark from the edge bringing the 2" and 6" mark together. Pin in place on the top and bottom edges.

6. Continue this folding and pinning process until you have pleated all the fabric.

7. Press the pleats into place, to insure that the pleats are uniform you may need to pin the center of the pleats. Press directly over the pins.

8. DIAGONAL BASTE the top and bottom edges of the fabric pleated. (Check the HAND SEWING section of the book to find complete instructions on Diagonal Basting.)

9. Remove all pins and using the pounding block press again.

10. The pleats must now be permanently set into the fabric. The STITCHING method will be used here.

Set you stitch length indicator on 3. Carefully remove the bottom row of hand basting.

Starting at the bottom, place a row of machine stitches through both layers of the pleat edge. Backstitch at both top and bottom. DO NOT remove the basting along the top, simply stitch as close as you can to the basting and stop.

11. Place a row of regular machine stitches along the 5/8" SA on the top of the piece. The piece is now ready to be attached to another garment piece.

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BOX PLEATS

1. Cut a piece of fabric from the pattern marked BOX PLEATS.

2. Transfer all markings using a SMOOTH tracing wheel on SOLID line and a SERRATED tracing wheel and a different color tracing paper on the DOTTED lines.

3. Fold the fabric, WRONG sides together matching the first two DOTTED lines, pin in place.

4. Machine baste exactly on the dotted lines.

5. Press the SOLID line into a crease. The press the fold of fabric (created by the machine basting) to one side. Center the crease over the machine basting. Pin the top edge in place.

6. Repeat Steps #3-#5 until the entire length of fabric is pleated.

7. The Box Pleat must be permanently set in place, the CHEMICAL method will be used.

Dampen a press cloth with a solution of white vinegar and water. A 1/2 cup of vinegar to 2 cups of water solution works well for most fabrics. For fabric that is hard to pleat, use more vinegar. Place the cloth over the pleats and iron with a DRY iron until the press cloth is dry.

8. Release the machine basting and press flat.

9. Machine baste at the 5/8" SA on the top. The Box Pleated piece is now ready to attach to the garment.

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INVERTED BOX PLEAT WITH AN UNDERLAY

1. Cut two pieces of fabric from the pattern INVERTED BOX PLEAT and one piece of fabric using the pattern PLEAT UNDERLAY. Transfer markings.

2. Prepare all pieces by finishing the seams. Use a seam finish that will not reduce the dimension of the SA.

3. RIGHT sides of the fabric together, match notes and stitch the two pleat sections together with the Pleat underlay. Use a 1/4" SA. Press the seams flat towards the pleat underlay.

4. With the RIGHT sides together, match the marking lines and pin in place. Machine baste down this line. Press seam open.

5. Pin the top edge of the pleat in place and diagonal baste in place.

6. Press the pleat flat, making sure that the narrow seam form the fold lines of the pleat. At this point the pleats would need to be set permanently. We are going to eliminate this step for this exercise.

7. Machine stitch over the diagonal basting. Press the pleat and remove the vertical row of machine basting. The piece is now ready to be joined to other garment pieces.

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ATTACHING PLEATS:

This exercise will use the waistband prepared in the Interfacing exercise and the pleated sections prepared above.

1. Sew the three pleated sections together (Knife, Box and Inverted Box) using a 5/8" SA.

2. Press the seams open, be careful not to wrinkle pleats.

3. Use the NON-INTERFACED side of the waistband. Place the waistband so the RIGHT side of the waistband is against the wrong side of the pleated piece. Leave a 5/8" SA at each end of the waistband. Pin in Place.

4. Machine stitch along the 5/8" SA, joining the skirt and waistband. Remove pins and press the seam open.

5. GRADE the waistband seam to 1/4". Press the SA towards the waistband.

6. On the loose lengthwise side of the waistband, press the 5/8"SA to the inside.

7. Fold the waistband, lengthwise, with right side together and stitch the side seams of the waistband together with a 5/8" SA. (Fig. 3)

8. Trim the corners diagonally. Using a point turner turn the seams inside out making sure the corners are SQUARE.

9. Press the corners flat using the Pounding block.

10. Pin the loose end of the waistband over the original stitching line on the skirt by placing a pin in the center. Pin from the corners to the center. When pinned the waistband should completely cover the original stitching line. Press in place. Clip.

11. Begin top stitching at one corner of the pinned seam. Stitch as close to the edge as possible, without going off the edge. When you reach the end of the pinned seam, pivot and continue top stitching around the entire waistband. This additional top stitching yields a crisp look and helps the waistband resist rolling over.

12. Remove all pins and press flat using the pounding block.

13. Join the CB seam of the pleated skirt together leaving a 6" opening at the top. Press the seam open.

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CORDED BIAS FACING

This is a variation of a bias facing that is common to costume construction since the finished facing is decorative as well as functional.

This exercise will be done on the neckline of the Size 8 bodice.

Prepare the corded bias facing:

1. Fold the fabric on the diagonal, bringing one selvage edge to the raw edge, forming a 90 degree angle. This diagonal fold is the TRUE BIAS.

2. Cut a strip, along this fold, the measurement of the neckline plus 11''.

3. To determine the width of the bias strip, add the circumference of the cording to two seam allowances:

Cording circumference = 3/4"
Seam allowance = 5/8"
Width of bias strip is 3/4" + (2 x 5/8") = 2"

Determine width needed and cut bias strip.

4. Press 5/8" of fabric to the inside on the short edges of the cording.

5. Wrap the bias strip around the cording, RIGHT side out. Pin in place.

6. Using a zipper foot, stitch as close as possible to the cording. Do not catch the cording in the machine stitching.

Attach the corded bias facing:

7. RIGHT sides together pin the corded bias strip to the neckline of the bodice. Stitch in place using a zipper foot.

8. Grade the seam allowance of the bodice only. Clip through all layers.

9. Turn the SA to the inside and press in place.

10. Top stitch the facing in place using a 1/2" SA.

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FITTED FACING

Fitted facings are used on extremely curved surfaces where a bias facing will not stretch enough to lie flat or wherever the facing might show (i.e. fronts of blouses and shirts). The fitted facing produces a much crisper edge than a bias facing.

This exercise will be done on the armseye of the Size 8 bodice.

1. Stitch the ends of the facing together using a 5/8" SA. Press seam open.

2. Finish the outer edge of the facing with a seam finish that will not add bulk.

3. RIGHT sides together, pin the facing to the armseye, matching the notches. If the notches don't match, you have the facing on the wrong armseye.

4. Stitch around the facing at 5/8" SA. Use the free arm of your machine to do this.

5. Grade, clip and press the facing. Press the SA's towards the facing.

6. Understitch by placing a row of machine stitching through the facing and all the layers of SA as close to the seam edge as possible. Do not sew into the surface of the bodice.

7. Press the facing to the inside using a tailor's clapper.

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INSEAM PLACKETS

This exercise will be done on the CB of the Size 8 bodice and skirt.

Cut two pieces of fabric using the pattern marked BODICE PLACKET.

2. Cut one piece of interfacing from the pattern BODICE PLACKET INTERFACING.

3. Apply the interfacing to one of the BODICE PLACKET pieces.

Attach the Placket underlay by:

4. Place the non-interfaced edge of the placket underlay against the left side of the bodice. Place the RIGHT side of the placket against the WRONG side of the bodice. Pin in place, leaving a 5/8" SA extending at the neckline.

5. Stitch placket underlay in place. SA's towards the underlay. Press seam open, grade and press all

6. Press the long edge of the placket underlay to the inside.

7. Finish the placket underlay at the neckline edge as required.

8. Pin the loose edge of the placket underlay over the original stitching line. Top stitch in place. Press flat.

Attach the placket extension by:

9. Place the RIGHT side of the placket extension against the WRONG side of the garment. Adjust placement of the extension to insure that you have a 5/8" SA at the neckline. Pin in place.

10. Stitch the extension to the garment using a 5/8" SA. Press seam open. Grade. Press SA's towards the placket extension.

11. Press the seam allowance on the long edge of the extension to the inside.

12. Finish the extension at the neck edge in the same manner as the placket underlay.

13. Pin the end of the placket extension over the original stitching line. Top stitch in place. Press flat.

14. Place the RIGHT SIDES of the placket pieces together and stitch the 5/8"SA on the bottom edge in place. Trim the seam to 1/4" and zig zag over it.

15. Press the Placket extension so that it folds to the inside of the CB FAVOR the placket just slightly.

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SLASHED PLACKET/ CONTINUOUS LAP PLACKET

This placket is used when a slashed placket is necessary and the plainest visual appearance desired.

This exercise will be done on the Size 8 sleeve.

1. Cut a strip of fabric 1 1/4" wide and twice the length of the slash. The piece should run on the lengthwise grain of the fabric.

2. Clip the point of the slash up to the stay stitching.


3. Spread the slash open and lay the RIGHT side of the placket against the WRONG side of the sleeve opening. Pin in place.

4. Using a 1/4" SA Stitch the continuous lap placket in place making sure that it is flat.

5. Press the SA towards the placket. Press the remaining long edge to the inside at 3/8".

6. Bring the folded edge of the placket over the original stitching line. Pin in place and top stitch.

7. Press flat.

8. Fold the under side of the continuous lap placket to the inside. This is the placket extension. FAVOR the placket extension slightly.

9. One the inside of the sleeve, stitch the placket underlay and extension together. Place this stitching so that it runs diagonally across the continuous lap placket. (Fig. 2) This keeps the placket from rolling to the outside of the sleeve.

10. Turn the sleeve to the right side and press flat.

11. Sew the underarm seam together in the sleeve using a 5/8"SA. Press seam open.

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MACHINE HEM - SHIRTTAIL

This exercise will be done on the pleated skirt.

1. Place a row of stay stitching at 5/8" from the edge.

2. Press the hem to the inside just above the stay stitching line. The stay stitching should not be visible on the RIGHT side of the skirt.

3. Turn the raw edge to the inside 1/4" and press in place. The hem depth is now 3/8".

Pin the hem in place. Top stitch as close to the roll line as possible. Remove pins and press. If the hem is bulky, using the pounding block.

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MACHINE HEM - HOLLYWOOD/LETTUCE

1. Cut a piece of fabric 5" x 10".

2. Place a row of stay stitching along one long edge of the fabric as close to the edge as possible. Press the fabric to the inside along the stay stitching.

3. Using a wide, short zig zag stitch the hem in place. The zig zag should appear to be going half off the fabric as you sew. Press flat.

4. Using the fabric provided, repeat Step # 3. Stretch the fabric as much as possible while stitching. DO NOT PRESS. This is the lettuce hem.

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HAND HEMS - BLIND STITCH, LOCK STITCH, and CROSS-STITCH

This exercise will be done on the skirt of the Size 8 dress.

Prepare the skirt by:

1. Turning the raw edge of the hem to the inside 3/8" and press in place.

2. Turn the hem to the inside with a depth of 1". Pin in place.

3. Measure the circumference of the hem and mark off in thirds. Begin measuring at CB.

Hand Hem - Blind stitch as follows:

4. Using a single strand of silamide thread begin at CB and blind stitch to the 1/3 mark. Fasten off.

5. Begin where you left off and using a lock stitch sew to the 2/3 mark. Fasten off.

6. Begin where you left off and cross stitch the remainder of the hem in place. Remove pins and press in place.

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Slip stitch is used to hem, attach linings, hold pockets and trims in place and provides an almost invisible finish. Slide the needle through the folded edge of the fabric and at the same time pick up a few threads of the garment side of the fabric. Continue in this manner, taking 1/8" to 1/4" stitches evenly spaced.

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Blind stitch is good for any garment edge where there is possibility of both sides showing, or when the fabric is sheer so that stitches need to be invisible. The edge of the area to be hand sewn with a blind stitch must be clean finished which can be done by folding the raw edge to the inside and pressing. Roll the folded edge back on to itself and take a small horizontal stitch through the fold only. Then pick up a thread or two of the hem diagonally above, being careful to keep the stitches even, small, and loose. When the fold is rolled back into place the stitches are not visible for either side.

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Lock stitch is good for trouser and skirt hems since each stitch is knotted. If the lock stitch is torn, only one or two stitches will unravel, making it one of the strongest hand stitches available. Take a small horizontal stitch through the hem and pick up a thread of the garment directly across from the first stitch. Pull the thread up until it forms a small circle, then pass the needle through the circle and towards the garment edge. The stitches should be 1/4" to 3/8" long.

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Tailor's Tack or Cross Stitch is used to stitch fabric together in areas of great stress or where some 'give' is needed (i. e. knits) Work from LEFT to RIGHT, pointing the needle in the opposite direction. Take a small stitch in the garment a small distance from the hem edge then diagonally across pick up a thread in the hem only. Continue in this manner, keep stitches loose. The stitches should be no more than 1/2" in length.

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HAND SEWING - SLIP STITCH

This is an alternate finishing method for waistbands, cuffs, etc. The machine finishing method used on the waistband of the pleated skirt is quick and durable, but the hand method produces a much softer, tailored look and is appropriate for delicate fabrics.

This exercise will be done on the Size 8 bodice sleeve and the cuff prepared in the interfacing exercise.

Pull the gathering stitches on the edge of the sleeve up until the sleeve is approximately the same length as the cuff.

RIGHT sides together pin the cuff to the sleeve edge. Check to make sure that the continuous lap placket is properly pinned and that you have left a 5/8" SA on either end of the cuff.

Adjust the gathers so the fullness is distributed evenly. Using the free arm of the machine, stitch the cuff and sleeve together at 5/8" SA.

Press this seam towards the cuff and grade the gathered edge away to 1/4". Press the lengthwise edge of the cuff to the inside at 5/8".

Fold the cuff in half, RIGHT sides together and stitch the short seams in place. Trim the corners diagonally, and using the point turner turn the cuff right side out. Press flat.

Pin the folded edge of the cuff over the previous stitching line, on the WRONG side of the sleeve, completely covering all stitching lines.

Begin at one corner and slip stitch the cuff into place. Remove pins and press. If the cuff is bulky, use the pounding block.

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HOOKS AND LOOPS

Hooks and Loops are used wherever a garment overlaps. Hooks and eyes are used when the garment edges just meet.

This exercise is to be done on the Size 8 dress.

1. Use a double strand of thread, either button or silamide, in a color that matches as closely as possible to the garment. Knot the thread.

2. The hook will be sewn to the placket extension. The hook is placed with the head of the hook pointing towards the edge of the garment and about 1/8" inside the garment edge. The hook should not be visible from the right side of the garment.

3. Sew the hook on by taking several small stitches through each loop of the hook. Do no sew across the loops, as it is not as strong. Stitches should go through the placket extension only.

4. When the loops of the hook are securely attached, pass the needle under a single layer of fabric, bringing the needle up next to the head of the hook. Take several small stitches over the head of the hook, catching only the lower part of the head. This is done to prevent the fabric from pulling away and revealing the hook while the garment is being worn. Tie off with a tailor's knot.

5. To mark placement of the loop, use a piece of TAILOR'S WAX. Rub the wax over the hook and realign the placket. Press down firmly on the hook, and the wax will transfer a small mark to the placket underlay.

6. Place the loop over the marks by taking several small stitches through the placket extension and the loops. Tie off with a tailor's knot.

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SNAPS

1. Use a double strand of button or siladmide thread in a color that matches the garment as closely as possible. Knot the thread.

2. Attach the MALE half of the snap to the placket extension at the waistline seam of the garment. Sew the snap on by taking several small stitches through each of the holes in the snap. Do not sew across two holes, as it is not as strong. Stitching should go through the placket extension only and not be visible on the right side of the garment. Tie off with a tailor's knot.

3. Mark the placement for the FEMALE half of the snap with Tailor's Wax. Center the FEMALE half of the snap over the mark produced and attach this half of the snap to the placket underlay.

4. Check to see that the snap functions properly after it is attached, it is possible to attach snaps backwards so they will not close properly.

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BUTTONHOLES

Buttonholes can be made by hand but they are time consuming and not very durable. Machine made buttonholes can be done automatically on most modern machines. Older domestic and industrial machines need a special attachment to produce buttonholes.

This exercise will be done on the cuff prepared previously.

1. Select the type and size of the button to be used.

2. On the top side of the cuff use tailor's chalk and place a mark 3/8" in from the edge.

3. Measure the length of the button and add this measurment to the measurement of the thickness of the button. This determines the length of the buttonhole. For example, a 1/2" button with a 1/8" thickness requires a buttonhole that is 5/8" long.

4. Beginning at the 3/8" mark, chalk a line the length of the buttonhole. Then place a cross mark at the end of the necessary length.

5. Check the manual for the particular machine and set the stitch width and length to the proper position.

6. Begin sewing at the cross mark nearest the edge of the garment. Sew down the left hand side of the button hole to the cross mark. Stop the machine at the cross mark with the needle in its up position.

7. Reset the machine as necessary and bar tack across the bottom of the buttonhole. Sew only two or three times at this point. (Fig. 2)

8. Reset the machine as necessary and sew up the right hand side of the buttonhole and bar tack. You should now be back to the point here you began to sew.

9. Resew the entire buttonhole, sewing exactly over the first layer of stitching. This insures that the buttonhole will not ravel or stretch.

10. Clip your thread and press the buttonhole flat. Open the buttonhole with your scissors, begin with a small cut in the center of the buttonhole and cut to the edge of the bar tack. Never use a seam ripper to cut open buttonholes, since it can easily slip and ruin the garment. Repress the buttonhole.

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ATTACHING BUTTONS

Buttons come in two formats, those with visible holes (2 or 4) and those with a manufactured shank. Except for very lightweight items, ALL BUTTONS MUST HAVE A SHANK. This allows for enough room between the garment and the button that the garment hangs properly when buttoned.

A shank button has a leather, thread or metal loop attached to the back of the button. These buttons may be sewn on with a double strand of button thread center over the mark.

1. This sewing exercise will be done on the sleeve and cuff previously prepared and will demonstrate how to sew on a button with visible holes providing a thread shank.

2. Close the placket on the cuff so that it aligns properly. Using tailor's chalk mark the center of the buttonhole. Make your mark in the form of a small cross.

3. Using a single strand of matching button hole thread, attach the button centered over the mark. Knot the thread and take a small stitch on the RIGHT side of the garment. Pass the needle through to the WRONG side of the garment.

4. Place a kitchen match or large bobby pin between the button and the garment. The button will be sewn over this, thus providing the basis for a thread shank.

5. Bring the needle up through the fabric and through the holes in the button, ALWAYS holding the match stick in place. You may sew horizontally, vertically or diagonally through the holes in the button. Pass the needle through fabric and button until the holes in the button are almost completely filled with thread.

6. When the button seems secure remove the match and bring the needle up underneath the button as close as possible to the thread shank. Wrap the thread around the thread shank several times, this gives the shank stability.

7. Pass the needle back to the WRONG side of the garment and tie off with a tailor's knot.

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ZIPPER CLOSING

This exercise will be done on the pleated skirt and waistband prepared previously.

Obtain a zipper from your instructor.

Center the zipper stop at the bottom of the opening in the skirt about 3/8" into the seam. Pin the left side of the zipper tape to the skirt, turning the 5/8" SA on the skirt under as you work. If you have problems keeping the SA on the skirt even, press it down BEFORE you begin pinning.

Using a zipper foot on your machine, sew with a regular stitch length down the length of the zipper. Place your line of stitching as close as possible to the teeth without sewing over the teeth. NOTE: If your stitching crosses the teeth, the zipper will not close.

Close the zipper. Pin the right side of the zipper tape to the skirt, once again folding under the SA as you work. The seam should overlap the previous stitching just slightly. When the zipper is properly pinned in placed you should not be able to see any of the zipper teeth or slider.

Diagonal baste the right hand side of the zipper in place. Remove the pins and steam.

Begin stitching at the bottom left hand corner of the zipper where the first row of stitching stopped. Line the stitching lines up exactly. Sew across the bottom of the zipper, pivot and sew up the right hand side of the zipper.

NOTE: When you begin sewing up the right hand side of the zipper, you cannot see the zipper teeth, it is important to be accurate, so sew slowly and try to feel the zipper teeth with you fingers.

Remove diagonal basting and check to see if the zipper meshes and unmeshes properly. Steam lightly.

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SET-IN SLEEVE

This sewing exercise will demonstrate how EASE is handled and will be done on the Size 8 bodice and sleeve previously prepared.

NOTE: For further information on EASE check the CONTROL OF FULLNESS section of this book.

1. Place gathering stitches across the sleeve cap using the three-thread method. Begin your stitches at the single notch in the front of the sleeve and end them at the double notch in the back of the sleeve.

2. Pull up the gathering threads only slightly. Remember in EASE only a very little fullness is present.

3. Place the right sides of the sleeve and bodice together. Pin the single notch on the sleeve to the single notch in the bodice, pin the double notch in the sleeve to the double notch in the bodice. If you match these notches up correctly you will have the sleeve in the correct armseye.

4. Pin the single center notch to the shoulder seam of the bodice and the underarm seams of the bodice and sleeve should be pinned together.

NOTE: It is possible to set the right sleeve into the left armseye and vice versa. If this is done the sleeve will not hang properly. ALWAYS MATCH SINGLE NOTCHES WITH SINGLE NOTCHES AND DOUBLE NOTCHES WITH DOUBLE NOTCHES.

5. Adjust the gathering threads so that the sleeve cap fits into the arms-eye. Place the gathers so they are evenly spaced between the single front notch and double back notch. Proper easing produces a smooth seam on the RIGHT side of the garment. Pin the sleeve in place.

6. Using the free arm of the machine, sew the seam together. Remember to place the sleeve seam with the ease facing you. Remove the pins and check to see that the ease is even and the seam is flat on the RIGHT side of the garment.

7. Using either the tailors ham or press mitt press the seam towards the sleeve, being careful to not press wrinkles into the cap. Don't try to rush the pressing of this seam, it takes careful concentration to press the sleeve properly.

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