Restoration
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DATES: 1660 - 1700 A.D.
bulletCharles II Restored To Throne 1660
bulletLouis XIV On French Throne 1661 - 1715
bulletHudson Bay Trading Company 1670
bulletWilliam And Mary 1689 -1702
bulletGreat Fire Of London 1666

PRIMARY SOURCES:

bulletGarments
bulletSamuel Pepys diaries
bulletwood cuts, painting
bulletPAINTERS: Lely, Kneller, Vermeer, Rigaud, Steen

SECONDARY SOURCES:

bulletRenaissance and Baroque - Nuyge
bulletLely- Beckett
bulletJonannes Vermeer- Goldschneider
bulletLe Costume Civil en France - Piton

PLAYS:

bulletThe Way Of The World- Congreve
bulletThebeauxstrategem- Farquhar
bulletThe Recruiting Officer - Farquhar
bulletEnglish Nell - Hope
bulletCountry Wife- Wycherly
bulletMoliere's Comedies
Restoration Clothing

Clothing in the Restoration expressed the suppressed feelings of freedom during the Puritan period. The frivolities of courtiers had been stifled for eleven years and the Restoration is the period that everything that had been stifled is cut loose. Curls, ribbons puff, flounces and feathers returned to clothing wherever they could be attached. Masculine and feminine dress began to take on the stiffness and smart elegance that had been abandoned with James I's death.

Gentlemen wore wigs that had curls all over it and they shaved their heads. The faces were shaved at first then only a thread of a mustache if any. The hat moved to a high-crown, stiffer and a little narrower-brimmed hat and it was cocked to side. All men tried to wear cravats around the neck rather than the huge collars.

Women wore ringlets clustered in the back of the hair with smaller tendrils waved around the face which replaced the earlier dense frizzle. Rich women would weave pearls into their hair and put nosegays in their buns, however, the common people wore simpler hair. In the Old and New World they continued to wear caps, especially in the Colonial scene. Collars were higher but wider across the shoulders and necklines were low, wide and dropped on the shoulders. Most women wore under dress with another garment on top and if the she could afford it the bodice and skirt would be attached. If she was poorer the skirts and bodices were of different colors. In this period the apron became very popular and in fact it could be classed with the skirt rather than an accessory. Skirts were a tad bit shorter and peasant women shortened their dresses to the instep, while court women shortened their skirts just to show the toe.

The court used deep-toned velvet and light colored satin and colors at Versailles were subdued. The Colonial fashion was not subdued and bright-hued garments prevailed. Red, blue, yellow and green were popular and fearlessly combined. Men often wore red coats and women's petticoats were also red but in flowered silks. Hats and shoes were black and stockings were light colored.

Notable Restoration Costume History
Periwig—Wig that gained favor during the period of Louis XIV; hair at this time was worn shoulder length and in flowing curls. The head was then regularly shaved, the wig taking the place of the man's own hair. At first it was made to look like natural hair, but eventually an artificial effect was cultivated. Masses of ringlets fell over the shoulders and down the back. By 1660 wig-making in France reached such a stage of perfection that French periwig was in demand all over Europe.

 

Chapeau Bra—Since hats were required at French court and women could not wear hats on their high wigs, they created this “arm hat” to wear.
Rabat—Type of Cravat, with vertically pleated front fall.
Jabot—The frill on the shirt front that might accompany the rabat.  
Cassock Coat—Between 1650 and 1670 the doublet of Charles I reign was sometimes lengthened and almost to the knee. Like its Predecessor it could be worn either belted or beltless, but following the new trend it had a lower waist line; its skirts flared slightly. Except for length, it was essentially like the modern clerical cassock.
Cannon—Bunches of ribbon loops affixed at the knee, worn between 1660 and 1670.
Bolero—A small jacket often with rounded corners on the front.
Manteau—The formal female gown of the period of Louis XIV. The overskirt was looped back and held by ribbon bows. The looped-up folds were often bunched in back over an underskirt of taffeta; the train, the length of which was determined by the lady's social position. The train was carried over the left arm, except in the presence of royalty, when it trailed on the floor.

Tricorne—The standard three-cornered hat worn by gentle-men of the period.

 
Cravat—Any type of neck dressing other than a collar. Of various types through several periods. Her the rabat, or lace falling band, with round corners became broad and long, and the jabot, or frill on the shirt front, frequently appeared with it. By the end of the 1670's the ends of the cravat became full lace tabs, tied under the chin with a cravat string of ribbon or lace.  
Steinkirk—A scarf of lace or lawn, loosely tied with the ends casually twisted into the vest or shirt front or drawn through a buttonhole or ring. Black silk steinkirks were introduced in the 1690s and were named after the Battle of Steinkirk, where the hurriedly garbed French, unable to tie their cravats, twisted the ends through buttonholes in their coats.
Petticoat Breeches—Full breeches, ending in deep ruffles or canons. There were two styles of petticoat breeches—one which resembled a kilt, the other a divided skirt. By about 1660 the breeches were so wide that it is not always easy to distinguish between Rhinegrave breeches and s short skirt. Sometimes the legs of these garments attained a width of six feet.
Fontanges—In 1680 the Duchess de Fontanges, having her hat blown off at a royal hunting party, tied her curls in place with her garter, arranging a bow with ends in front. From that incident a new fashion evolved—a cap of tier of upstanding wired and pleated ruffles of lawn, lace, and ribbons. The hair dressed in that fashion was called coif-fure a la Fontanges, and the cap with its narrow rising front was known as le bonnet a la Fontanges. The cap often had two floating pieces of ribbon or lace in back, and over the whole arrangement was often worn a black silk hood or kerchief. In 1691 the headdress was reduced to two tiers of pleats and became known as the commode.

 

Waistcoat—A sleeveless vest that was worn under a coat and was the same length as the coat.
Baldric—A diagonal sash that went across the body that would hold the sword, display metals and show status.

 

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