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Learn a New Security Term

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Cyber Security Awareness

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Learn a new security term!

The Security Awareness Terms come from an online IT dictionary called www.webopedia.com.

Adware: A form of spyware that collects information about the user in order to display advertisements in the Web browser based on the information it collects from the user's browsing patterns.

Banker trojan: In computer and network security terminology, a Banker Trojan-horse (commonly called Banker Trojan) is a malicious program used in an attempt to obtain confidential information about customers and clients using online banking and payment systems.

Botnet: A botnet refers to a type of bot running on an IRC network that has been created with a trojan. When an infected computer is on the Internet the bot can then start up an IRC client and connect to an IRC server. The Trojan will also have been coded to make the bot join a certain chat room once it has connected. Multiple bots can then join in one channels and the person who has made them can now spam IRC chat rooms, launch huge numbers of Denial of Service attacks against the IRC servers causing them to go down.

Browser hijacker: A specific type of spyware that will allow a hacker or malicious perpetrator to spy on the infected computer's Internet browsing activity. Using a browser hijacker the person responsible for the spyware can deliver pop-up ads, reset the browser homepage, or direct the browser to Web sites the victim would not normally visit.

Computer Virus: A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes. Viruses can also replicate themselves. All computer viruses are manmade. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt. An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself across networks and bypassing security systems.

Computer Worm: A program or algorithm that replicates itself over a computer network and usually performs malicious actions, such as using up the computer's resources and possibly shutting the system down. Also see virus.

Cracker: To break into a computer system. The term was coined in the mid-80s by hackers who wanted to differentiate themselves from individuals whose sole purpose is to sneak through security systems. Whereas crackers sole aim is to break into secure systems, hackers are more interested in gaining knowledge about computer systems and possibly using this knowledge for playful pranks. Although hackers still argue that there's a big difference between what they do and what crackers do, the mass media has failed to understand the distinction, so the two terms - hack and crack - are often used interchangeably.

Cyber Crime: Cyber crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cyber crime also includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example; hate crimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card account thefts are considered to be cyber crimes when the illegal activities are committed through the use of a computer and the Internet.

Encryption: The translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is called plain text; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text.

Firewall: A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.

Hacker: A slang term for a computer enthusiast, i.e., a person who enjoys learning programming languages and computer systems and can often be considered an expert on the subject(s). Among professional programmers, depending on how it used, the term can be either complimentary or derogatory, although it is developing an increasingly derogatory connotation. The pejorative sense of hacker is becoming more prominent largely because the popular press has coopted the term to refer to individuals who gain unauthorized access to computer systems for the purpose of stealing and corrupting data. Hackers, themselves, maintain that the proper term for such individuals is cracker.

Honeypot: An Internet-attached server that acts as a decoy, luring in potential hackers in order to study their activities and monitor how they are able to break into a system. Honeypots are designed to mimic systems that an intruder would like to break into but limit the intruder from having access to an entire network. If a honeypot is successful, the intruder will have no idea that s/he is being tricked and monitored. Most honeypots are installed inside firewalls so that they can better be controlled, though it is possible to install them outside of firewalls. A firewall in a honeypot works in the opposite way that a normal firewall works: instead of restricting what comes into a system from the Internet, the honeypot firewall allows all traffic to come in from the Internet and restricts what the system sends back out.

Ijack: The term used to describe the theft of laptop computers when the perpetrator literally grabs the laptop out of the owner's hand and runs away with it. Also a form of theft pertaining personal information to assume an identity and commit fraud. As defined by Intersections Inc., iJacking is an emotionally devastating crime that drains your accounts, hurts your reputation and leaves you financially paralyzed when thieves assume your identity or use your Social Security number to commit fraud crimes.

IP spoofing: A technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers, whereby the intruder sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host. To engage in IP spoofing, a hacker must first use a variety of techniques to find an IP address of a trusted host and then modify the packet headers so that it appears that the packets are coming from that host.

Layered defense: In computer and network security terminology, a layered defense is used to describe a security system that is build using multiple tools and policies to safeguard multiple areas of the network against multiple threats including worms, theft, unauthorized access, insider attacks and other security considerations. A layered defense ultimately should be able to provide adequate security at the following levels: system level security, network level security, application level security, and transmission level security. Also called a multi-layered defense.

Malicious Active Content: A type of malware that uses common, gynamic scripting language )e.g.Java,Javascript, Active X, or Visual Basic). Vulnerabilities in the scripting language are exploited to carry malicious code, which could be downloaded through a Web browser and executed on a local system without the user's knowledge or consent. Malicious active content can be used for many criminal activities, including to deliver viruses and worms, send e-mail record information from the local user, or to redirect users or content. Active content is also called movile code.

Man-in-the-middle attack: An active Internet attack where the person attacking attempts to intercept, read or alter information moving between two computers. MITM attacks are associated with 802.11 security, as well as with wired communication systems.

Password: A secret series of characters that enables a user to access a file, computer, or program. On multi-user systems, each user must enter his or her password before the computer will respond to commands. The password helps ensure that unauthorized users do not access the computer. In addition, data files and programs may require a password. Ideally, the password should be something that nobody could guess. In practice, most people choose a password that is easy to remember, such as their name or their initials. This is one reason it is relatively easy to break into most computer systems.

Password cracking: The process of attempting to guess or crack passwords to gain access to a computer system or network. Crackers will generally use a variety of tools, scripts, or software to crack a system password. The goal of the cracker is to ideally obtain the password for root (UNIX) or system and administrator (Windows, NT). Password cracks work by comparing every encrypted dictionary word against the entries in system password file until a match is found.

PGP: Abbreviated as PGP, a technique developed by Philip Zimmerman for encrypting messages. PGP is one of the most common ways to protect messages on the Internet because it is effective, easy to use, and free. PGP is based on the public-key method, which uses two keys - one is a public key that you disseminate to anyone from whom you want to receive a message. The other is a private key that you use to decrypt messages that you receive.

Phishing: The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The Web site, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the users information.

Proxy Server: A server that sits between a client application, such as a Web browser, and a real server. It intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it can fulfill the requests itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server.

RAT: Short for Remote Access Trojan, a Trojan horse that provides the intruder, or hacker, with a backdoor into the infected system. This backdoor allows the hacker to snoop your system, use your infected system to launch a zombie (attacks on other systems), or even run malicious code.

Security: In the computer industry, refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer cannot be read or compromised by any individuals without authorization. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords. Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. A password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system.

Smart Card: A small electronic device about the size of a credit card that contains electronic memory, and possibly an embedded integrated circuit (IC). Smart cards containing an IC are sometimes called Integrated Circuit Cards (ICCs).

Sniffer: A program and/or device that monitors data traveling over a network. Sniffers can be used both for legitimate network management functions and for stealing information off a network. Unauthorized sniffers can be extremely dangerous to a network's security because they are virtually impossible to detect and can be inserted almost anywhere. This makes them a favorite weapon in the hacker's arsenal.

SPAM: Electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings. Some people define spam even more generally as any unsolicited e-mail. However, if a long-lost brother finds your e-mail address and sends you a message, this could hardly be called spam, even though it's unsolicited. Real spam is generally e-mail advertising for some product sent to a mailing list or newsgroup.

Spoof: To fool. In networking, the term is used to describe a variety of ways in which hardware and software can be fooled. IP spoofing, for example, involves trickery that makes a message appear as if it came from an authorized IP address. Also see e-mail spoofing. Spoofing is also used as a network management technique to reduce traffic. For example, most LAN protocols send out packets periodically to monitor the status of the network. LANs generally have enough bandwidth to easily absorb these network management packets. When computers are connected to the LAN over wide-area network (WAN) connections, however, this added traffic can become a problem. Not only can it strain the bandwidth limits of the WAN connection, but it can also be expensive because many WAN connections incur fees only when they are transmitting data. To reduce this problem, routers and other network devices can be programmed to spoof replies from the remote nodes. Rather than sending the packets to the remote nodes and waiting for a reply, the devices generate their own spoofed replies.

Spyware: Any software that covertly gathers user information through the user's Internet connection without his or her knowledge, usually for advertising purposes. Spyware applications are typically bundled as a hidden component of freeware or shareware programs that can be downloaded from the Internet; however, it should be noted that the majority of shareware and freeware applications do not come with spyware. Once installed, the spyware monitors user activity on the Internet and transmits that information in the background to someone else. Spyware can also gather information about e-mail addresses and even passwords and credit card numbers.

SSH: Developed by SSH Communications Security Ltd., Secure Shell is a program to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to move files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and secure communications over insecure channels. It is a replacement for rlogin, rsh, rcp, and rdist. SSH protects a network from attacks such as IP spoofing, IP source routing, and DNS spoofing. An attacker who has managed to take over a network can only force ssh to disconnect. He or she cannot play back the traffic or hijack the connection when encryption is enabled.

SSL: Short for Secure Sockets Layer, a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet. SSL uses a cryptographic system that uses two keys to encrypt data - a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers.By convention, URLs that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http.

Turing number: Abbreviated as TN, turning number is a randomly generated security code, usually a series of digits, displayed as an image that users may need to read and copy into a form field in order to submit or validate a form submission online via a Web browser. Turing numbers are used to ensure there is a human user instead of automated (bot) submissions. Turing numbers are commonly used on e-commerce Web sites or promotional or contest Web sites -anywhere there is a need to avoid automated submissions by bots.

Trojan Horse: A destructive program that masquerades as a benign application. Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. One of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer. The term comes from the a Greek story of the Trojan War, in which the Greeks give a giant wooden horse to their foes, the Trojans, ostensibly as a peace offering. But after the Trojans drag the horse inside their city walls, Greek soldiers sneak out of the horse's hollow belly and open the city gates, allowing their compatriots to pour in and capture Troy.

Vishing: The telephone equivalent of phishing. Vishing is the act of using the telephone in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The scammer usually pretends to be a legitimate business, and fools the victim into thinking he or she will profit.

VPN: Short for virtual private network, a network that is constructed by using public wires to connect nodes. For example, there are a number of systems that enable you to create networks using the Internet as the medium for transporting data. These systems use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted.

Zombie: Short for virtual private network, a network that is constructed by using public wires to connect nodes. For example, there are a number of systems that enable you to create networks using the Internet as the medium for transporting data. These systems use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted.

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