Experimental Foods
Fall 2005
Research Projects

The Acceptability of Benefat as a Fat Substitute in Sugar Cookies.

Leanna Blue, Carisa Sundsmo, Carolina Lopez

Cookies made with Crisco are a high calorie food. Benefat is a possible fat substitute that functions like fat but only supplies 5 calories per gram compared to 9 calories per gram from Crisco. A cookie recipe by Nestle Toll House was used to make cookies replacing the fat source Crisco with Benefat made by Danisco. Three variations were made. A Control, 50% Crisco and 50% Benefat, and a 100% Benefat, all other ingredients, preparations, and cooking procedures were held constant. Sensory evaluations took place in environmentally controlled booths involving 25 untrained judges. Sensory evaluations included a triangle difference test, preference test, intensity tests for tenderness, saltiness, sweetness, and buttery flavor. Objective tests included height, diameter, density, shear force and compression force. Although differences were found in tenderness for subjective and objective tests, they did not influence the judges’ preference for the cookies.


Benefat is a Successful Partial Fat Substitute in Chocolate Cake

Megan A. Cleveland, Rosanna R. Erickson & Shawn C. Brown

This study involved testing of three different chocolate cakes to determine the effects of the fat substitute Benefat on physical structure and sensory qualities.  The cakes included a control, 50% Benefat substitution, and 100% Benefat substitution.  Thirty untrained Central Washington University student judges evaluated the cakes for moistness, tenderness, density, preference, and general differences (triangle tests).  Triangle tests revealed that judges could tell the difference between the control and 100% and the 50/50 and 100%, but not between the control and 50/50.  Objective and sensory testing indicated that the control and 50/50 were not significantly different in moistness, preference, triangle tests, compressibility, cohesiveness, shear force, middle height, slope, or percent moisture loss.  The 100% version was significantly less tender, moist, and preferred, and more dense, compressible, and cohesive than the other versions.  The 50/50 is an acceptable substitute for the control.

Evaluation of sensory and objective changes to a fruit-based smoothie after the addition of two different quantities of tri calcium citrate

Letitia Damien, Kim McCorquodale, & Amanda Richardson

The consumption of calcium is not adequate for many people. Fortification of foods with calcium is a potential method to increase intake. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in sensory tests, objective tests and overall acceptability after adding 2 different amounts of calcium to Hansen’s Strawberry Banana smoothie. Tri calcium citrate (TCC) was added until 2 smoothie treatment samples contained 100mg and 290mg added calcium per 8 ounce serving. The control sample contained no added calcium. During triangle tests, judges (n = 22) were only able to distinguish the control sample from the 290mg treatment. No significant differences were found during descriptive tests evaluating the samples for sourness, sweetness, texture, and preference (n=30). The % brix increased significantly with increased added TCC. Turbidity was significantly higher in the 290mg sample. A large portion of the TCC precipitated out of solution in the 290mg sample. This was not noticed by the judges because the samples were shaken before serving; however, this could affect acceptability and calcium absorption if the 290mg sample were not shaken during consumption. The 100mg sample had no difference in preference from the control and contained no TCC precipitate. Based on our study results, a smoothie product supplemented with 100 mg of TCC would be accepted by consumers. Such a product would have health benefits and could be produced at little added costs.


Rice Bran Oil is an Acceptable Substitute for Soybean Oil in Carrot Cupcakes

Brita Huhta, Martha Ojalehto, and Tara Saenz

Objective: To test the acceptability of rice bran oil (RBO) in place of soybean oil in carrot cupcakes.

Methods: In this experiment, three variations of carrot cupcakes were prepared.  RBO was used to replace 50% and 100% of soybean oil in a control recipe for carrot cupcakes (Table 1).  Sensory and objective tests were completed to measure for difference, preference, height and penetration force of the variations.

Results: Results of the objective tests for height and penetration and sensory tests for difference and preference did not indicate a significant difference between the variations.

Conclusions: RBO is an acceptable substitute for soybean oil in carrot cupcakes due to the lack of significant difference between the variations.

Garbanzo Bean, Pea, Soy Flour are Acceptable Partial Substitutes for All-Purpose Flour to Achieve Various Desired Characteristics in Pumpkin Spiced Muffins.

Whitney Graham, Jonina Campbell, and Jennifer Simpson

Flours produced from legumes instead of grains are gaining nutritional interest because of their added health benefits.  However, flours made from legumes lack some of the physical contributions of all-purpose flour to create a quality baked product.  Combining part wheat flour with part legume flour may produce a more nutritious and quality product.  This study aimed to determine whether substituting 25% of the wheat flour in pumpkin spice muffins with garbanzo, pea and soy flour produced acceptable and comparable products.  It was concluded that there is no significant preference difference between the control and the soy flour variation as well as between the soy and garbanzo flour variations.  Also, judges were unable to distinguish a difference between the pea flour and the garbanzo bean flour variation.  However, judges preferred the control over pea and garbanzo bean variations as well as soy over pea muffins.

A 50 % White Wheat Flour Substitution is an Acceptable Substitute for All-Purpose Flour in a Standard Biscuit Recipe

Shannon Coughlin,  Jeana Records, and Stacey Waletzko

Scientists spent eight years developing white wheat flour. If this flour is a successful substitute it would disguise the color in many products and would be more accepted by elementary school- aged children. This research project conducted determined if white wheat flour was an acceptable substitute for all purpose flour in a standard biscuit recipe. Three samples were produced: a control, a 50% white wheat substitute, and a 100% white wheat substitute for all-purpose flour. Twenty-five untrained judges evaluated the three biscuits under red light conditions in separate sensory booths. Sensory tests done include: tenderness, an extended triangle test, preference test, and saltiness test. Objective testing done includes: TA.XT2 Universal Texture Analyzer with a cone probe and the Warner-Bratzler Shear test on all three biscuits. This study concludes that the product with a 50% substitution is an acceptable alternate for all-purpose flour in a standard biscuit recipe.

Rice Bran Oil is an Acceptable, Healthier Substitute of Canola Oil in Chocolate Chip Cookies

Monica Colgan, Tomomi Kimura, Sean Walsh

The purpose of this study was to find if Oryzan rice bran oil would be an acceptable substitute for canola oil in chocolate chip cookies.  Three variations on a standard chocolate chip cookie recipe were used, changing only the fat.  A blind randomized study was performed on 51 Central Washington University students.  The subjects were tested on difference, tenderness, sweetness, acceptability, and preference.  Objective tests were done using drying ovens to measure moisture loss, the TA.XT2 for measuring penetration force, the Warner-Bratzler Shear was used to measure shear force, and venier calipers were used to measure dimensions.  The statistics, obtained through the above mentioned methods, were calculated using ANOVA and Fisher’s PLSD.  All recipes produced cookies statistically similar in diameter and height and all other objective tests.  Subjects were able to tell a difference between all three recipes but no significant differences were found in any of the subjective tests.

ORYZAN Rice Bran Oil is an acceptable substitute for butter in Betty Crocker cake mix recipes

Jessica Culnane, Marcie Heckart, Jenelle Woodard

The goal was to evaluate the effects and acceptability of using ORYZAN Rice Bran Oil in place of butter in Betty Crocker Butter Cake. Rice bran oil is low in saturated fat and could be used to lower saturated fat and cholesterol intake from baked goods among Americans, which is a contributor to heart disease. The control used 100% butter, one variation used 50% butter and 50% rice bran oil, and the second variation used 100% rice bran oil. Sensory testing consisted of intensity tests completed by 22 student and staff volunteers in isolated booths. Sensory tests concluded that people could tell the difference between the control and both variations; however, there was no significant difference in preference. Sweetness, tenderness and butter flavor intensity tests showed no significant difference. A moistness test concluded that judges found 100% rice bran oil to be significantly moister than 100% butter. Objective tests concluded that the 50/50 variation was more tender than the other two. There was no significant difference in height. Rice bran oil was found to be an acceptable substitute for butter.