Experimental Foods
Fall 2004
Research Projects


Gluten Flour Combined with Litesse Polydextrose is Acceptable as a Partial Low-Carbohydrate Substitute for All-Purpose Flour in Buttermilk Biscuits.
Emily Hansen and Laura Wiseley
Low carbohydrate foods are presently a considerable food trend in the United States.  Litesse® is a complex polydextrose molecule that is indigestible by the human body and is often used in making low calorie foods.  However, producing an acceptable low carbohydrate baked product is complicated because of the valuable role carbohydrates play in baking.  The purpose of this study was to determine if 10% Litesse® and gluten would make an acceptable partial substitution for flour in buttermilk biscuits.  Preference and difference results showed that when Litesse® is substituted at a rate of 10% plus gluten, and 10% with double gluten, there is no discernible difference when tested against the control.  Significant differences were discovered in height and force needed to penetrate the outer edge of the biscuit.  These results indicate that when Litesse® is substituted at a 10% rate with gluten, the combination makes an acceptable reduced carbohydrate buttermilk biscuit.


The Quality of Pie Crust Prepared with Trans-Fat Free Shortening
Whitney Caron and Emily Smith
This study tested the objective and sensory qualities of baked pie crust using two types of trans-fat free shortening (Spectrum Naturals and Ciranda) compared to the original Crisco.  Each pastry was prepared identical for consistency.  A blind, randomized study was performed by Central Washington University Students (n=25).  Subjects tested for difference, tenderness, flakiness and preference. Objective tests measured height with a vernier caliper, and penetration and break force using a TAX.T2.  ANOVA and Fisher’s PLSD were used to calculate the statistics using STAT View.  Crisco contained the thinnest crust and required the least penetration force.  Ciranda was significantly different from the other two brands in the triangle test, was significantly identified as the least flaky, and required the most break force.  There was no significant difference in the mean preference between the three, but most of the judges gave Ciranda the highest score and Spectrum Naturals the lowest.


The Acceptability of JLS Dry as a Fat Substitute in Betty Crocker Fudge Brownie Mix
Sara Hanson and Megan Frost
 The purpose of this experiment was to determine if Just Like Shortening® (JLS Dry) was an acceptable fat substitute for oil in Betty Crocker Fudge Brownie Mix ®. Three brownie variations were used; 1) a control containing the full amount of oil 2) 50% JLS Dry with half the oil and 3) 100% JLS Dry with no oil. Forty untrained judges from Central Washington University participated in a blind sensory evaluation to determine differences between variations.  The sensory tests consisted of three triangle tests, chocolate intensity, chewiness, tenderness, and preference tests.  Objective tests included height, moisture content, and compression and tackiness using a Universal Texture Analyzer, TA.XT2, (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY).   Analysis of variance and Fisher’s LSD were used to determine significant difference at P<0.05.  Results found no significant differences between the control and 50% JLS Dry. Overall, the brownie using 50% JLS Dry was considered acceptable.


Flax Meal and Wheat Bran as Sources of Fiber in Oatmeal Chocolate Chip Cookies
Emily Abbott & Kristin Followill
The purpose of this study was to find an acceptable fiber additive for oatmeal chocolate chip cookies (OCCC).  The addition of flax meal or wheat bran to OCCC results in cookies with 2 grams of fiber each. Three cookie samples were prepared and tested: control, flax, and bran.  Triangle tests indicated detectable differences between the control and the variations.  Sensory moisture and sweetness intensity tests showed the control to have the most moisture and sweetness, with no differences between flax and wheat bran. A preference test showed only differences between flax and control, with the control being preferred over flax.  Objective moisture tests showed wheat to have the most moisture followed by control and flax.  Cookie diameter measurements showed the control to have the largest diameter, with no differences between flax and bran diameters.  Height measurements found the wheat to be the tallest cookie followed by flax and then the control.  Penetration force, measured by a universal texture analyzing machine showed the wheat to be the toughest cookie, followed by flax, and the control as the softest.  Given these results, it was found that both flax and bran are acceptable additives to increase fiber in OCCC.


Almond Flour is an Acceptable Substitute for All-Purpose Flour in Peanut Butter Cookies
Christina Lashbrook & Stefanie Frankovic
The objective of the study was to measure the effect of replacing wheat flour with almond flour in peanut butter cookies.  Three variations of cookies were used.  There was a control, where no modifications were made, a half-modified cookie, which replaced half of the wheat flour with almond flour and an all-modified with all of the wheat flour replaced with almond flour. Twenty untrained CWU students were the judges.  The sensory tests used were a preference test, triangle test, and tests for moistness, chewiness and nuttiness. Objective tests included penetration and compression force using a Universal Texture Analyzer, TA.XT2, height and width using Vernier Calipers and percent moisture using a drying oven.  Analysis of variance and Fisher’s PLSD were used to determine significant difference.  The preference results showed no significant difference between the cookies, however, attributes such as chewiness, moistness and nuttiness were highest in the all-almond flour cookie.


Benefat and Tofu are Successful Fat Substitutes in Pound Cake
Shannon Carmody and Heather Tjarnberg
Obesity, heart disease, and cancer are conditions that are widespread among Americans and are shown to be correlated with a high fat intake.  Food companies have been at work developing products that can be substituted for fat in foods.  After the completion of a research study, 2 products, Benefat and tofu, were found to be successful fat substitutes in pound cake.  Benefat is a fat-based fat substitute that provides five Calories per gram, creating a reduced fat pound cake.  Tofu was used as a fat-free protein-based replacement, forming a fat free pound cake.  Triangle tests showed that there were significant differences between the three cakes.  Further sensory evaluations of the moistness, sweetness, firmness, and chewiness aspects of the cakes showed that both cake varieties were acceptable products.  Preference tests concluded that tofu was the most acceptable fat replacement in pound cake.


The Effect of Milk Substitutes in Yellow Cake
Kelly Hughey & Lacey Underwood
Consuming cow’s milk in baked products, such as cakes, poses a problem for individuals with lactose intolerance. When considering the need for more lactose-free foods, we researched the effects of milk substitutes in a basic yellow cake. Three variations of the cake were made using the original 2% milk, soy-milk and rice-milk. A series of sensory evaluations were completed by 15 volunteer judges.  Then objective tests were performed in the laboratory.  We gave the judges difference tests, preference tests and three intensity tests.  Although judges could tell the cakes apart, we found no significant differences in sweetness, saltiness, flavor intensity or physicality. Preference tests revealed that the three variations were equally satisfactory.  Soy and rice-milk were found to be acceptable milk substitutes.


Acceptablility of Snickerdoodle Cookies Using Xylitol as a Sugar Substitute
Katy Lachman and Kara Odiaga
The purpose of this study was to find if xylitol is an acceptable sugar substitute in Betty Crooker’s snickerdoodle cookies.  Two variations, 50% xylitol and 100% xylitol, were tested against the control.  Duo-trio tests were given to 20 untrained judges along with 4 sensory tests which include: sweetness, tenderness, chewiness, and acceptability.  Objective evaluation was measured by 5 objective tests.  Three tests used the Universal Texture Analyzer (TA.XT2) measuring break force and penetrations.  Two of the tests measured the height and width using vernier calipers.  Statistical analysis was determined using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fischer’s LSD, p<0.05.  Five out of five objective tests determined significant differences between all three variations.  Three out of four of the sensory tests determined significant differences.  Based on the sensory and objective tests, 100% xylitol was determined an unacceptable snickerdoodle cookie, while the 50% variation was found to be as acceptable as the control.


Garbanzo Bean Puree is an Acceptable Fiber Additive in Carrot Cake Mix
to Achieve a "Good Source" of Fiber
Robyn Cawker and Susan Eikenbary
 The purpose of this experiment was to produce an acceptable high and good source of fiber carrot cake. Three cakes were prepared from Betty Crocker Carrot Cake mix according to package instructions; however, garbanzo bean puree was added: 362 grams in the good source and 723 grams in the high fiber.  Forty untrained judges performed six sensory evaluation tests; four objective evaluations were also performed.  Significant sensory results were: good source couldn't be distinguished from control, control was sweeter than both variable cakes, high fiber was chewier than control, and control was not
preferred over good source.  Objective tests found significant differences in stickiness, compression, moisture content, and density: high fiber received the highest ratings, followed by good source, and control received the smallest ratings.  We concluded garbanzo bean puree is an acceptable fiber additive to achieve a "good source" of fiber, but not to achieve a high fiber product.


Acceptability of Corn Bread prepared using butterbeans as a fat ingredient substitute
Maressa Grace and Sandra Latham
 Increased amounts of fat in the American diet has led to obesity and diabetes becoming major concerns for the American public with 65% of U.S. adults either overweight or obese (2). A baby born today has a one-in-five chance of becoming diabetic during their lifetime (1). Reducing fats in the diet will help reduce blood cholesterol levels for people with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), and reduce blood sugar levels. This study determined that butter beans were an acceptable replacement for fats in cornbread. The judges in this study could not detect a difference in bean flavor between samples. Responses from 31 judges revealed only a slight detectable difference in preference within the three samples that included control 50% fat replacement with butter beans and 100% replacement with butter beans. The tenderness was acceptable to the human judges.


The Acceptability of Fructo-Oligosaccharides as a Sugar Substitute in Applesauce Cake
Jodie L. Baunsgard and Nobuko Narita
The purpose of this experiment was to discern if fructo-oligosaccharides could be used as a sugar substitute in applesauce cake. Some benefits include calorie reduction, improvement of calcium absorption, increased HDL levels, the prevision of provides Bifidobacteria that stimulates intestinal flora, decreased colon cancer, decreased stool pH, reduced fasting blood sugar levels and improved dental health.  The study was designed with three different varieties of applesauce cake. There were 40 participants in the sensory evaluation and difference testing. The sensory evaluation included testing for moistness, sweetness and preference. The difference tests included the triangle test. Additionally, there were objective tests performed, including texture analysis, compression force, height of three pieces of cake, wet/dry analysis and a test measuring the height at 7cm in to the cake.  Analysis of variance testing was performed on outcomes of our study. If there was any significant difference then a Fisher’s PLSD test was used.


Rice Milk and Soy Milk are Acceptable Substitutes for Cow’s Milk in Butterscotch Pudding
Laura Barrett and Allison Raaum
The purpose of this study was to see if soy milk and rice milk were acceptable substitutes for cow’s milk in butterscotch pudding.  Sensory evaluation was performed by 20 untrained judges and included three extended duo-trio tests, one preference, one sweetness, and one smoothness test.  The judges could tell the difference between the three samples in each Duo-Trio test establishing a significant difference.  The preference tests showed an overall preference for cow’s milk, but soy milk and rice milk were still acceptable as a substitute.  The judges determined rice milk to be the sweetest and smoothest in the sensory evaluations.  Two objective tests were performed: viscosity and texture analyzer.  Rice milk was the most viscous of the three samples, while cow’s milk was the thickest.  The results from the texture analyzer showed that soy milk formed the firmest substance and rice milk required the smallest amount of force to penetrate the pudding mixture.


Lentil Flour is an Acceptable Substitution for All-Purpose Flour in Peanut Butter Cookies
Anne Becker and Shannon Reese
The purpose of this study was to determine if lentil flour was an acceptable substitute for all-purpose flour in peanut butter cookies.  15-26 judges performed sensory testing, which included 3 extended triangle tests, a preference test, a sweetness intensity test, a saltiness intensity test and a tenderness test.  Objective testing consisted of three different measurements including, height of three cookies stacked together, weight of individual cookies and texture analysis.   Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fisher’s PLSD tests were used to determine the significance of the data.  According to the data, lentil flour is an acceptable substitution for all-purpose flour in peanut butter cookies.

 


PalmFruit as an Acceptable Shortening in Brownies
Hilary Knelleken and Ashley Edwards
The growing need for products containing lower to no trans fat has led to the development of several products that meet such needs.  PalmFruit shortening, which contains no trans fat was developed by Ciranda to replace hydrogenated shortenings with very similar functionality for cakes, frosting, cookies, etc.  The effectiveness of these products has not been extensively tested.  This led us to test the acceptablility of PalmFruit as a shortening replacement in a brownie recipe.  Based on a combination of objective and sensory testing, it was concluded that PalmFruit was an acceptable replacement for shortening in baked goods and did not compromise quality to produce a healthier product.