Experimental Foods
Fall 2003
Research Projects

Calcium Carbonate Fortification had no Effect on Sensory Quality
Lindsey Lygre and Erin Davis

 The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of fortifying Betty Crocker® Super Moist Chocolate Fudge Cake mix with 500mg of calcium or 1000mg of calcium per serving using calcium carbonate.  Sensory evaluation was performed by 26 untrained judges and included 2 extended triangle tests and 1 preference test.  The first triangle test compared the control against the 500mg fortified cake and the second triangle test compared the 500mg fortified cake against the 1000mg fortified cake.  The last sensory test was a preference test between the 3 variations.  Objective evaluation was performed using 5 objective tests.  Three of these tests used the Universal Texture Analyzer (TA.XT2, Texture Technologies, Scarsdale, NY) measuring penetration and compression force.  The fourth test measured the height of the 3 cake variations using vernier calipers.  The final test determined moisture content using a drying oven.  Statistical analysis was determined using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s LSD, p<0.05.  Three out of five objective tests indicated a significant difference among the variations.  However, the sensory evaluation concluded no significant difference.  Based on the sensory evaluations, chocolate cake is an acceptable product with either 500mg or 1000mg fortification of calcium per serving.

Improving the Texture of Tofu Cheesecake
Laura Giese and Brooke Myhre

The purpose of this study was to determine if gelatin and pectin would
enhance the texture of tofu cheesecake.  The control group consisted of
tofu. One variable group contained .75 grams of pectin (V1). The last
variable group contained .75 grams of gelatin (V2). Twenty untrained judges
from Central Washington University volunteered their time to serve as the
judges. They evaluated the tofu cheesecake for sweetness, overall
preference, texture and a duo-trio test of difference.  Using a Universal
Texture Analyzer (TA.XT2) objective data was collected regarding the
penetration force of the tofu cheesecake. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and
Tukey’s LSD was used to determine the significance of the data. According to
the tests performed pectin was the best additive because in the sensory evaluation
test there was no significant difference between the control and V1.

Effects of Light Margarine and Yogurt-Based Margarine on Butter Cookies
Stephanie Sherperel and Rheannon Gray

The purpose of this experiment was to determine if light margarine (LM) and yogurt based margarine (YBM) are acceptable fat substitutions for regular margarine in Butter Cookies.  These variations and the control made with 80% vegetable oil, were compared.  Two low fat margarines were used as the other two variations.  LM is made from sweet cream buttermilk and 37% vegetable oil.  YBM is a combination of vegetable oil and low fat yogurt (25%).  The objective data regarding shear force and penetration force were measured using a Universal Texture Analyzer TA.XT2 (Texture Technology Corps, Scorsdale, NY/Stable Micro Systems, Haslemere, Surrey, UK).  Moisture content was measured with a drying oven.  The results showed that LM and YBM were significantly softer and contained more moisture than the control.  Thirty-three untrained sensory judges evaluated the cookies for sweetness, tenderness, and moistness.  The control cookies were perceived to be sweeter, less tender, less moist, and more acceptable than LM and YBM.  The higher water content in the LM and YBM resulted in more moist products, but not as acceptable as the control for butter cookies.  The higher water content in the LM and YBM resulted in the increase of tenderness and moistness.  These variations were least accepted compared to the control.

Soy Milk and Rice Milk are Acceptable Substitutes for Cow’s Milk in Heavenly Chocolate Cake.
Anne Majsterek and Desiree’ Cooper

 The purpose of this study was to determine whether substitutions of soymilk or rice milk for cow’s milk would be acceptable alternatives in Heavenly Chocolate Cake.  These substitutions would be of significance to those who suffer from lactose intolerance or milk allergies, both of which may result in gastrointestinal distress and other allergic reactions.  Not only would substitutions of soymilk and rice milk alleviate these problems, but themselves also contain further nutritional benefits.  Soymilk may help prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer while rice milk aids in the prevention of colon cancer.
 In this study three samples were tested.  The two sample variations made with soymilk and rice milk were compared to a control sample made with cow’s milk.  All sample variations were prepared exactly the same using a chocolate cake recipe.  The substitutions were in equal amounts to the control.  All samples were prepared with margarine instead of butter because butter contains the proteins that cause milk allergies.
 Sensory and objective tests were performed.  Two difference tests performed resulted in no distinguishable significant difference between the soymilk substitute and control, yet a significant difference between the rice milk substitute and control.  Sweetness and moisture intensity produced no significant results.  However there were significant results in preference rating.  The cake sample made with rice milk was preferred.  Two groups of objective measurements were recorded.  Due to the extreme variation in the results of the product samples from testing day one to day two, statistical analysis was inconclusive.
 Following data analysis, it was found that both soymilk and rice milk are acceptable substitutes for cow’s milk in Heavenly Chocolate Cake.  Even though soymilk was distinguishable from the control, it was not found to be significantly less preferred.  Rice milk was not notably different from the control, but significantly preferred.  Due to this preference, rice milk would more likely be substituted for cow’s milk in Heavenly Chocolate Cake for those suffering from lactose intolerance or milk allergies.  Even though soymilk was not preferred it may also be used as a positive alternative to cow’s milk in this recipe.

Acceptability of Splenda, Sweet’n Low or Stevia Powder as a Replacement for Cane Sugar in Sugar Cookies
Maryann Judd and Kristin Johnson

The objective of the study was to measure the effect of replacing cane sugar with sugar substitutes. Approximately thirty untrained CWU affiliates volunteered as sensory judges in a blind study using a controlled environment. The judges participated in three duo-trio tests which compared the control against the other variations. The remaining sensory tests consisted of an overall preference test, as well as sweetness, saltiness, bitterness intensity tests, and a moistness evaluation test using a nine point hedonic scale. Four objective tests were preformed on each batch of cookies. Universal Texture Analyzer, TA.XT2 (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY) was used to measure cone penetration and shear force. Vernier calipers were used to measure cookie height, and wettability techniques were used to determine percent moisture. Analysis of Variance, P < 0.05, and Tukey’s LSD were used to determine significant differences between the control and the three variations. The duo-trio, overall preference, and sweetness intensity tests detected significant differences between the control and all three variations. Saltiness intensity tests detected no significant differences. Bitterness intensity test detected significant differences between the control and the Sweet’n Low and Stevia Powder variations. Moistness evaluation showed a significant difference between the control and the Sweet’n Low variation. Both percent moisture and cone penetration found significant differences between the control and all variations. There were significant differences detected in height between the control and both Sweet’n Low and Stevia Powder. Splenda and Stevia Powder were significantly different when compared against the control during sheer force testing.

A Study Measuring the Effects of Replacing Sugar with Splenda in Pumpkin Cookies.
Noey Siler and Aimee Clem

The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of replacing sugar with Splenda in pumpkin cookies.  Three variations of the recipe were used:  1) the control (CTL) in which no modifications were made to the original recipe; 2) half the sugar replaced with Splenda (HSP); 3) 100% of the sugar replaced with Splenda (SPA).  Thirty-two untrained judges were recruited from Central Washington University to complete the sensory tests which were:  two duo-trio tests, and tests for preference, sweetness, and tenderness using nine-point scales.  Objective tests included penetration and compression force using a Universal Texture Analyzer, TA.XT2, (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY), and height using Vernier Calipers.  Analysis of variance and Tukey’s least significant difference (LSD) were executed to determine significant difference at the 5% (P<0.05) level.  Duo-trio tests exhibited no significant difference between HSP and CTL, and a significant difference between SPA and CTL.  A significant difference was found between SPA and HSP for sweetness but not between CTL and the other two treatments.  CTL was found to be significantly more tender than HSP.  SPA was found to be significantly less preferred than CTL and HSP.  Height measurements yielded significant difference between all variations.  No significant texture difference was found between treatments using the cone probe; however, the texture measurements of SPA were found to be significantly different from CTL and HSP.  Replacing 100% of the sugar with Splenda was not preferred.  However, replacing half the sugar with Splenda produced acceptable pumpkin cookies.