Experimental Foods
Fall 2002
Research Projects

Partial Substitution of Rice or Rye Flour for All-Purpose Flour in Reduced Fat Banana Bread Produces a High Quality Product.
Dan Klocke and Becky Veatch

The objective of the study was to determine how the overall quality of banana bread made with applesauce as a fat replacement was affected by the use of rice flour and rye flour.  Six sensory tests were performed on four variations of banana bread to assess difference, sweetness, moistness, and preference.  Two objective tests were conducted to evaluate height and percent moisture.  24 untrained taste panelists from Central Washington University participated in testing.  Sensory tests were performed in sensory booths under red lights.  The control banana bread recipe used fat and all purpose flour.  A reduced fat recipe used applesauce, replacing fat.  The second and third recipes had added amounts of rice flour and rye flour.  The control was expected to be the most preferable, with the reduced fat providing similar results.  No other expectations were determined.  Statistical analysis was determined using Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s LSD, p < 0.05.  Results from the difference tests revealed significant differences between the control versus the reduced fat samples, and the rye flour versus the reduced fat samples.  No significant difference was detected between the reduced fat versus the rice flour samples.  There was no significant difference in sweetness; however, moistness revealed a significant difference.  The preference test revealed no significant difference.  There was no significant difference in the objective test for percent moisture; however, the objective test for height revealed a significant difference.  Despite differences, all variations are good alternatives to the control as they are equally preferable.



Elizabeth Kijima and Tony Hoffman

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Oatrim, a carbohydrate-based fat replacement, in Duncan Hines Chewy Brownies.  Oatrim (Bob’s Red Mill, Milwaukie, OR) reduces the fat in baked products and adds soluble fiber. Three variations were tested: 1) a control prepared with 100% of the fat (½ cup oil); 2) a reduced-fat variation prepared by replacing 50% of the fat with Oatrim; 3) a low-fat version prepared by replacing 75% of the fat with Oatrim. Twenty-one untrained panelists evaluated the three brownie products for tenderness, moistness, and overall acceptability. Significant differences were found in the height of the brownie and the overall acceptability in the low-fat (75% less fat) brownie when compared to the control.  The control brownie had the least moisture content while the reduced-fat brownie made with 50% less fat was found to be the most acceptable brownie of the three variations.  Overall, Oatrim was found to be an acceptable fat replacement in Duncan Hines Chewy Brownies when only half of the fat was replaced with Oatrim. Individuals seeking to reduce fat and add soluble fiber to baked products will benefit by replacing fat with Oatrim.


Unsweetened Applesauce and Pumpkin Puree are Acceptable Substitutes for Oil in Chocolate Cake Mix
Kari Lund and Tiffany Toteff

 The purpose of our experiment was to determine if unsweetened applesauce and
pumpkin purees are acceptable substitutes for oil in a chocolate cake mix. The replacement of the oil with either pumpkin or applesauce purees would decrease the amount of fat and calories in the chocolate cake. Three separate variations were tested: 1) a control prepared with a Duncan Hines Dark Chocolate Fudge cake mix using 1/3 cup of vegetable oil; 2) oil substituted with 1 cup of pumpkin puree; 3) oil substituted with 1 cup of applesauce puree. Twenty-two judges performed three sensory evaluation tests in a controlled setting. The judges were untrained Central Washington University students. Objective tests were done to measure cake height and penetration force. Penetration force was measured using a universal texture analyzer (TA.XT2) (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY/Stable Micro Systems, Haslemere, Surrey, UK). The data collected was statistically analyzed using Turkey’s LSD, analysis of variance, and p<0.05. Results showed that there was no significant difference in preference between the control and the two substitutions. Subjects could not distinguish between the three variations based on the results of the duo-trio test. A significant difference was found in height, penetration force, and sweetness. Overall the low fat variations were acceptable products.


Chocolate-Fudge Brownies Fortified with 500 mg of Calcium Citrate or Calcium Carbonate per Serving Produces an Acceptable Product when Objective and Sensory Properties are Tested.
Erica Cline and Crystal Kinsey

The purpose of this study was measure the effects of fortifying chocolate-fudge brownies with 500 mg of calcium carbonate or calcium citrate against a control and provide 50 percent of the DRI’s  for calcium per serving. Judges consisted of 23 untrained Central Washington University students who participated in 3 sensory evaluation tests.  There were 2 triangle tests, which compared the control against either the calcium citrate or carbonate variation.  The final sensory test was an overall preference test using all 3 variations. Four separate objective tests were also performed on each batch.  The first 2 tests used the Universal Texture Analyzer (TA.XT2, Texture Technologies, Scarsdale, NY) to measure compression and penetration force.  A third test used a drying oven to determine percent moisture lost.  The final test was a measure of height using a vernier caliper.
In both the triangle tests and the preference test there were no significant differences between the 3 variations.  However, the objective testing indicated the calcium citrate version was significantly different than the control in both the compression and penetration force tests.  There was no significant difference between the variations in the percent moisture lost and the height tests. Based on the overall preference test we found that an acceptable product can still be achieved by adding either 500 mg of calcium citrate or carbonate per serving.


Flax Seed Meal May Be an Acceptable Substitute for Oil in Banana Muffins for Those Concerned With Health.
Cecelia Brown and Delia Vargas

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not substituting flaxseed meal for oil in banana muffins would be an acceptable alternative.   Flaxseed is the leading source of omega-3 fatty acids from plant sources, and flaxseed meal is high in fiber.  A diet high in omega-3 fatty acids is associated with decreased risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and cancer-related tumors, and fiber is good for gastrointestinal motility.
 Three samples were used in this study.  The control sample was prepared using a traditional banana muffin recipe, including ¼ cup of cooking oil.  A half-flax/half oil variation was made by using 1/8 cup of oil and 3 ounces of flaxseed meal.  A whole flaxseed meal substitution variation was made by using 6 ounces of flaxseed meal and no oil.  The amount of water added to flax variations was 2.25 ounces and 4.5 ounces, respectively, to make up for the added dry ingredient content.
Objective tests to measure center height and edge height revealed significant differences in center height only.  Compression force showed no significant difference, however penetration force did.  Sensory tests included smell, tenderness, banana flavor, and moistness; all showing no significant differences. The triangle and preference tests did reveal significant differences.
 After extensive data analysis, it was determined that flaxseed meal was not an acceptable alternative to cooking oil in banana muffins for the general public.  It may, however, be an acceptable alternative for those concerned with overall health, fiber intake, and reduction in heart disease risk factors.


Acceptability of Benefiber as a DietaryFiber Supplement in Jell-O Instant Butterscotch Pudding.
Mahhuri Tripurana and Tera Lamb

The purpose of the study was to determine the acceptability of dietary fiber supplement Benefiber in Jell-O Instant Butterscotch Pudding. Three variations were tested: 1) Control pudding, 2) Treatment A with 3g of Benefiber (10% RDA of fiber), and 3) Treatment B with 6g of Benefiber (20% RDA of fiber). Twenty-five untrained judges evaluated the puddings for sweetness, viscosity and overall preference. A Universal Texture Analyzer was used to measure the compression force (peak force down), and tackiness (peak force up). Bostwick Consistometer was also used to measure the distance flowed by the three pudding samples.  Statistical analysis was performed using Analysis of Variance, Tukey’s LSD, P 0.05. The results indicate that the judges were able to identify a significant difference among the three pudding samples in the triangle test. However, there was no significant difference in the descriptive tests. Objective tests revealed that Treatment A required more compression force, and Treatment B was significantly different in tackiness. In addition, Treatment B was able to flow to a greater distance compared to the Control and Treatment A. Thus, we can conclude that Benefiber is an acceptable dietary fiber supplement.

Psyllium seed is an acceptable soluble fiber additive in bran muffins.
Danelle Swearingen, Heidi Hollan, and Kimber Gieske

Fiber is an important component of the human diet. Soluble fiber in particular is known to combat heart disease.  This study was performed in an effort to increase the soluble fiber content in a muffin recipe without adversely affecting the quality or acceptability of the product.  Psyllium fiber was used as the fiber additive, and three versions of the muffin were prepared – a control with no psyllium and two modifications with two different amounts of added psyllium.  Twenty-three sensory judges completed four evaluations of the muffins, including a triangle test of difference, a moisture evaluation, a texture evaluation, and a preference rating.  Seven objective evaluations were made, including height measurements, density calculation, percent moisture calculation, shear force test, and three texture measurements using the TATX2 Universal Texture Analyzer.  Analysis of variance and Tukey’s LSD was used to determine significance of the data.  According to the tests performed, modification 1 showed a trend towards being preferred even over the control version.  Though there were significant differences noted in several of the texture evaluations, we can conclude that substitution of ¼ cup of flour with psyllium seed, as done in this particular modification, is indeed acceptable and does not dramatically change the product, while adding an additional 2.6 grams of fiber per muffin.


Gluten-free Flour Mix is a Successful Substitute with the Addition of Xanthan Gum.
Shandra Garrison & Delayna Breckon

In this experiment we set out to determine if Bob's Red Mill Gluten Free All Purpose  (BRMGF) flour could be substituted for all-purpose wheat flour in a traditional yellow cake recipe.  We did a randomized controlled trial including three cakes.  The control cake was made with all-purpose wheat flour.  Both of the variable cakes were made with BRMGF.  The first of the variable cakes had the addition of one teaspoon of xanthan gum, (GFX).  The second variable cake had no xanthan gum (GF).  Objective data, regarding cake height, tenderness and compression force was collected from four series of cake samples.  Sensory panelists evaluated cakes by sweetness, acceptability and difference.  Random subjects were selected to determine if the cake made with the substitute flour was acceptable. A one way Analysis of Variance test was used to analyze sensory and objective data.  The objective and sensory tests conclude that BRMGF can produce an acceptable yellow cake with height and flavor comparable to the control cake as long as xanthan gum is also added.  These findings encourage the use of BRMGF coupled with xanthan gum, for those on a gluten restrictive diet.


Evaluation of Acceptability of Quiche Using Egg Replacer or Egg Substitute Compared to Whole Eggs.
Laura Arstein & Alison Jenkins

Excess dietary fat and cholesterol contributes to an increased risk of heart disease and eventually heart attack.  In order to reduce the amount of fat and cholesterol found in quiche, egg substitute and egg replacer were used in place of whole, shelled eggs in quiche prepared for this experiment.  The acceptability and moisture content were then evaluated using a variety of objective and sensory evaluation tests.  The results concluded that the use of a powdered, non-dairy egg replacer was not an acceptable substitute for whole eggs.  However, using EggBeaters brand egg white based substitute created an acceptable quiche as compared to the control quiche using whole eggs.  The tests that were conducted revealed that there wasn't a significant difference in acceptability of a quiche made with egg substitute in place of whole eggs.



Kyle Peper & Robert Bush

The objective of the study was to measure the effect of adding cooked and pureed lentils to a chocolate devils food cake.  Three variations were tested: control (CTL), lentil-added (LA), 50% reduced fat lentil-added (RFLA).  Thirty Central Washington University students volunteered as untrained judges for sensory testing in a blind study using a controlled setting.  Two triangle tests were performed along with three sensory evaluation tests: tenderness, moistness, and preference using a 9-point hedonic scale.  Additionally, four objective tests were performed.  A Universal Texture Analyzer, TA.XT2, (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY) was used to measure penetration force and compressibility.  Cake height and moisture content (%) where also measured.  Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s LSD were performed to determine significant differences, P< 0.05.  Initial triangle tests found only LA to be significantly different from CTL.  There was a trend for RFLA to also be significantly different from CTL.  Further sensory tests showed LA and CTL to be significantly more tender as compared to RFLA.  No significant differences between any of the cakes were found in the sensory tests for moistness and overall preference.  Objective tests showed significant differences of both LA and RFLA being less tender, having higher moisture content, and lower cake height as compared to CTL for tenderness, moisture content (%), and cake height.  The CTL was significantly less firm than RFLA but neither was significantly different from LA.  Adding lentils to a chocolate devils food cake maintains an acceptable quality product.