Experimental Foods
Fall 2001
Research Projects

Effects of Adding Psyllium on the Physical and Sensory Properties of Peanut Butter Cocoa No-Bake Cookies.
Kristen Blair, Angela Ruotsi, Melissa Aberle

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding psyllium to Peanut Butter Cocoa No-Bake Cookies.  Three products were tested:  the control, variation 1 (V1), containing a 1/2 cup (100 grams) psyllium, and variation 2 (V2), containing 1 cup (200 grams) psyllium.  Forty-five untrained university students served as judges for sensory testing.  Glossy appearance, sweetness, crunchiness, preference, and difference testing were evaluated.  A universal texture analyzer (TA.XT2) (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY/Stable Micro Systems, Haslemere, Surrey, UK), was used to measure compression force and distance (10-mm cylinder probe).  Shear force was measured using the Warner Bratzler Shear Apparatus (G-R Electric Manufacturing Co., Manhattan, KS).  Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance, Tukey’s LSD, p<0.05.  Results of the sensory testing revealed V2 was consistently the least acceptable in the intensity testing.  Control and V1 revealed no significant differences in difference testing, sweetness, and crunchiness.  V1 was significantly less preferred than the control, however, it still rated acceptable.  For the objective testing V2 required the most force (compression and shear).  There was no significant difference in objective testing, with the exception of compression force.  The results indicate V2 is an overall unacceptable cookie, while the results indicate V1 is closer in acceptability versus control.  A health claim can be made on V1 as a product labeled “good source” of fiber, containing 4 grams of fiber per serving.  This product could be marketed as an alternative to individuals looking to increase fiber in their diet.


Reducing the Fat and Substituting Almond Butter
in a Chocolate Cake Mix Still Produces an Acceptable Product.
Erika Van Calcar and Jenny Mitchell

The purpose of this experiment is to discover the effects and acceptability on the final product when the oil in a cake mix is cut in half and when the oil is substituted with an equal amount of all natural almond butter (American Almond Inc., Brookland, New York).  The two substitutions are then compared with the original cake mix recipe. Twenty-four to twenty-five judges preformed two to three sensory evaluations in a controlled setting.  The judges were untrained Central Washington University students.  Additionally, four objective tests were done on each cake variation.  Vernier calipers were used to measure the height of the cakes, while the TA.XT2 (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY) was used to measure compression force, tackiness and sheer force.  The results were analyzed to determine significant difference at p<0.05.  The judges were unable to establish a significant difference between the three cakes during the triangle test.  However, the judges preferred the control and reduced fat cakes over the almond butter cake and also found the control and reduced fat cake to be moister and less chewy than the almond butter cake.  Although there was no significant difference found between the control and reduced fat cakes.  Based on these findings, reducing the oil provides a more acceptable product than substituting all of the fat for an equal amount of almond butter in a boxed cake mix.

Partial Fat-Free Cheese Substitution is Acceptable in Macaroni and Cheese.
Jolene Safford and Sarah Hoekstra

This study investigated the effects of Smart Beat?(Heart Beat Foods, Cresskill, NJ) a fat-free and cholesterol-free cheese as a replacement for cheese containing typical amounts of fat in a macaroni and cheese recipe.  Three variations were tested: 1) a control prepared with 2% Kraft (Kraft Foods Inc., Glenview, IL) processed cheese; 2) a reduced-fat variation prepared with equal amounts of 2% Kraft? processed cheese and Smart Beat?; 3) a low-fat version prepared with Smart Beat? fat-free cheese.  Twenty untrained panelists evaluated the macaroni and cheese samples for overall preference, visual preference, cheese flavor, aftertaste intensity, and sauce thickness.  A universal texture analyzer (TA.TX2) (Texture Technologies, Scarsdale, NY) was used to measure viscosity (1” diameter AOAC probe, peak force down) and tackiness (1” diameter AOAC probe, peak force up).  Panelists indicated no preference difference between the control and reduced-fat samples, but preferred them over the low-fat version.  No significant difference existed for visual preference, cheese flavor, aftertaste intensity, and sauce thickness.  Objective tests revealed the low-fat sample was more viscous and tacky than both the control and reduced-fat samples at temperatures of 110°F and 80°F.  The fat-free cheese was found to be an acceptable cheese substitution in a basic macaroni and cheese recipe when only half of the 2% cheese was replaced.  Complete fat-free cheese substitution was not acceptable.  Fat-free cheese can be used as a healthy alternative for reducing the fat, saturated


Substituting Soy Flour for Wheat Flour in Brownies.
Julie Theroux & Jessica Edwards

Objective:  To evaluate how the substitution of soy flour for wheat flour in brownies affects the overall quality of brownies.
Design:  A three-week prospective epidemiological study was conducted at CWU.  A total of twenty-nine untrained judges participated in five sensory evaluation tests.  Three objective tests were also performed in the CWU nutrition department laboratory.
Subjects:  Fourteen untrained judges were administered two triangle tests.  Fifteen untrained judges were administered chewiness intensity, preference, and moistness intensity tests.  Sensory tests were performed in individual sensory evaluation testing booths under red lighting.
Intervention:  Three variations of brownies were made; a control using all-purpose flour, a variation with half soy flour and half all-purpose flour, and a variation made using soy flour.
Statistical analysis performed: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's LSD test with a 5% level of probability were used to determine differences between brownie variations.
Results:  There were no significant differences in the sensory evaluation.  In objective testing differences were found in compression, weight and density.  There were no significant differences in penetration or volume.
Applications & Conclusions: Since no significant differences were found in sensory evaluation for moistness, preference, and chewiness, it can be concluded that soy flour is an acceptable substitution for all-purpose flour in brownies.  Individuals who are looking for an alternative to all-purpose flour for various reasons will benefit from the consumption of brownies made with soy flour.

The Effects of Substituting Tofu for Cream Cheese in Chocolate Cheesecake.
Kristy Wilkins

There is strong epidemiological evidence that diet plays a role in cancer and many other diseases (1).  Soy is one of the foods that has been studied the most to identify the benefits of its consumption.  Soy protein has been found to effectively decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer (2,3).  The use of soy products could be increased in the typical diet if acceptable soy based foods are developed.  Based on this information, I developed a chocolate tofu cheesecake.  Statistical data was compiled comparing the acceptability of a control cheesecake, made with cream cheese, with 2 cheesecakes made with tofu.  One of the tofu cheesecakes substituted all of the cream cheese with tofu and the other substituted 50% of the cream cheese for tofu. Subjective and objective testing was done to identify the differences and the acceptability of the different chocolate cheesecakes.  The subjective tests included a triangle test to identify if any difference could be found between the products, and flavor, texture and preference tasting tests.  The objective tests are based on the TA.XT2 to analyze structure and texture.  There were no significant differences found between the control and the cheesecake made with cream cheese and tofu regarding bitterness intensity or preference.  There were no significant differences found in the force required for penetration and removal using the flat probe comparing the 50/50 cheesecake with the tofu cheesecake.  The results show that the cheesecake made with 50% tofu and 50% cream cheese was an acceptable replacement for a regular chocolate cheesecake.  The half-tofu cheesecake contains 30% fewer calories than the original and 50% less cholesterol.  These results support the purpose of the study, which is to develop healthier, acceptable alternatives using soy-based products to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.



Whey Protein as a Flour Replacement in Banana Bread.
LeiAnna Fleury, Amy Wachsmith

Today consumers are looking for new ways to eat, live and become healthier.  One way that is very popular is the increase of protein intake.  This is done through protein shakes, bars and powders.  These leads to the decision to add protein to baked goods, to increase protein yet allow consumers to consume the foods they love.
By substituting whey protein for ½ of the flour and 1/3 the flour in Better Homes and Gardens cookbook banana bread recipe, panelists were asked to evaluate tenderness, sweetness, color, preference and acceptability of the three loaves.  This testing was conducted in a laboratory sensory booth, where the panelists were without distraction and without a preconceived bias.
The objective five tests conducted for the three banana bread variations were run in the laboratory, using the TA.XT2 texture analyzer (tenderness), the Warner-Bratzler Shear Apparatus (shear force), volumeter (volume), weight was run on a laboratory digital scale and from that density was calculated.
The results from the difference test showed that there is a definite difference between the original bread and the two altered breads.  The general consensus on the sensory results showed that there were not many significant differences between the color, preference and acceptability.  However, there were significant differences between sweetness and tenderness.  The objective testing results showed that there were significant differences between the five tests that were run.
The results concluded that whey protein could be substituted for flour in a baked product and still produce an acceptable and preferable product.  The product with the whey protein will be more dense and less tender.