NUTR 440 - Experimental Foods

2008 Food Research Abstracts

Consumer Acceptance of Blue100 Whole Egg Replacer and

Egg Beater® Original in Chocolate Cookies

Brianne Kappel, Jillian Sauve and Megan Vander Woude

Diets lower in cholesterol show a decreased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart attack. This study determined consumer acceptance of Blue100 Whole Egg Replacer and Egg Beater® Original in chocolate cookies. Three batches of an original Betty Crocker chocolate crinkle cookie recipe modified to omit the powder sugar on the outside of the cookie were prepared as otherwise directed. The standard recipe with four eggs was used as the control. The second batch replaced the eggs with an equal amount of Blue100 Whole Egg Replacer. The third batch replaced the eggs with an equal amount of Egg Beater® Original. Three extended triangle tests were conducted. Test 1 showed no significant difference between the control and the egg beaters®. Test 2 showed a significant difference (p>.05) between the control and the Blue100 Whole Egg Replacer. Test 3 showed a significant difference (p>.05) between the Egg Beater® Original and the Blue100 Whole Egg Replacer. 46-49 untrained judges assessed the three variations of chocolate cookies for moistness (49 judges), chewiness (46 judges), and preference (46 judges). The moistness and chewiness sensory tests results showed significant difference (p>.05) among cookies. The moistness test showed the egg beater variation being the most moist followed by the egg replacer variation and lastly the control. The chewiness test showed the egg replacer variation to be the chewiest followed by the egg beater variation and lastly the control. Although no significant difference was detected among the judges in the preference test, the results showed the egg beater variation to have the highest preference score followed closely by the control and egg replacer variation.  Five objective tests were conducted including TA.XT2, diameter, height, volume, and dehydration percent weight loss. Significant differences were found from the results of the TA.XT2, height, volume, and dehydration percent weight loss. No significant difference was found from the diameter of the cookies. Overall, results from the sensory tests indicate that both Blue100 Whole Egg Replacer and Egg Beater® Original are acceptable substitutes to lower cholesterol in the Betty Crocker chocolate cookie recipe.


The Effect of Flaxseed Meal on Peanut Butter Cookies

Mayra Zaragoza, Dianely Acevedo, Katelyn Justice

The average American consumes less than the recommended amount of Omega-3’s even though studies have shown that diets high in Omega-3 may reduce the health risks associated with CVD.  Due to this, more convenient sources of Omega-3’s have been sought to increase the average daily intake and reduce the cardiovascular epidemic in this country.  The purpose of this study is to determine if a Peanut Butter Cookie would be a good quality cookie after a good source of flaxseed meal was added.  Two variations were created from the Betty Crocker Peanut Butter Cookie control recipe by adding 22.5g of Bob’s Red Mill Flaxseed meal and 22.5g of Bob’s Red Mill Flaxseed meal hydrated in 61.61g of water both providing a good source of Omega-3’s.  Approximately 30 to 34 judges conducted the six subjective tests; two triangle, chewiness, grittiness, moisture and preference tests.  The results establish that a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between the hydrated flaxseed meal cookies and both the control and flaxseed cookies in all of the tests, except for moisture.  Objective testing included the cookies height, penetration force and percent moisture change. All of the objective tests found a significant difference (p<0.05) between the hydrated flaxseed meal cookies and both the control and flaxseed meal cookies.  The hydrated flaxseed meal cookies were found to be significantly different from the control. However, the flaxseed meal cookie had no significant difference (p>0.05); therefore, could be used in industrial or personal kitchens as a cookie containing a good source of Omega-3’s.


Spinach and Carrot Purees as an Acceptable Addition to Fudge Brownies

Tennyson Salopek & Allison Schmidt

Vegetables high in Vitamin A, C, dietary fiber, and folate are shown to reduce the risk of certain cancers and help promote a healthy lifestyle. This study determined the acceptability of spinach and carrot purees as an addition to brownies. Spinach and carrots are both rich sources of vitamins A, C, dietary fiber, and folate. Three variations of brownies were prepared: a control with no addition of vegetable purees, a second variation with one half cup carrot and spinach puree added, and a third variation with one cup carrot and spinach puree added. This study used forty untrained Central Washington University students for sensory evaluation to assess the brownies on moistness, vegetable intensity, quality of acceptability, and overall preference. Results of all four sensory evaluations showed a significant difference in ratings among the products between subjects. The sensory tests revealed that the two cup total puree variation was the most moist and most intense in vegetable taste and the one cup total puree was the most acceptable and preferred. Objective testing was done on the brownies using the Universal Texture Analyzer, TA.XT2 (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY/Stable Micro Systems, Godalming, Surrey, UK) to measure penetration force and height using vernier calipers. The one cup variation and the control were significantly different from the two cup variation and differed slightly between each other. The two cup variation was shortest and took less penetration force. Overall, the one cup total puree variation was the most acceptable fudge brownie.


50% Açaí is an Acceptable Fat Replacement in Fudge Brownies;

The Staling Effects of Açaí as A Fat Replacement in Fudge Brownies

Bret Rust, Michael Sconce, Michelle Walton

Açaí (Ah-Sigh-ee) is the top rated fruit in antioxidant potential as measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) (1). Açaí puree is frequently used as a component of fruit smoothies to enhance antioxidant potential. The purpose of the present research was to assess the performance of açaí as a fat replacement in fudge brownies in flavor characteristics and in staling behavior. Eight distinct batches of a control recipe (C), 50% volume for volume replacement (50) and a 100% less one tablespoon volume for volume replacement (100) of margarine with açaí were tested using a total of 81 judges for five types of sensory evaluation tests and seven objective tests. Sensory Evaluation judges were able to discern differences between each group. 50 was not statistically different from C in overall general preference tests and in chocolate intensity, sweetness and moistness. 50 was found to be significantly higher in tenderness than C and 100. 100 was significantly lower in general preference. Desiccation trials revealed declining performance especially in exaggerated drying conditions of both 50% and 100%. Açaí puree offers an acceptable fat replacement at 50% volume for volume fat replacement in fudge brownies. Use of a water soluble fat replacer may lead to accelerated staling in fudge brownies over normal fat content brownie recipes especially when improperly stored.


Z-trim is an Acceptable Fat Substitute at 25% in Oatmeal Cookies

Angie Bellevue, Amber Hall, & Jaclyn Slonaker

High fat diets contribute to heart disease, obesity, and a majority of other chronic diseases. In our research we hoped to produce a suitable oatmeal cookie with less fat, using a carbohydrate corn derived starch fat replacement product, z-trim. This study was a blind, randomized, controlled study. A pre-packaged cookie mix was used according to the package instructions for the control and 25% of the fat was replaced for one variable (reduced fat), and 75% of the fat was replaced for the second variable (low fat), controlling all other variables. We attended lower level nutrition classes at Central Washington University and recruited approximately 60 college aged judges, both male and female.  Participants each completed three of the following five sensory tests including difference, moistness, preference, saltiness, and sweetness. The data that was obtained was subjective data based on their perceptions of our product and the questions we asked. Two objective tests were performed using a TA.XT2 texture analyzer to measure penetration and shear force. The data was analyzed using analysis of variance. The reduced fat cookie was found to be an acceptable product, while the low fat cookie was significantly different from the control and had the lowest mean preference score. Because the reduced fat cookie was an acceptable product, Z-trim could be used in small percentages to replace fat in baked goods or other items. Since Z-trim is so versatile, any person could use Z-trim in their daily diet to reduce fat and calories, reducing the risk of chronic disease.


The Acceptability of Citri-Fi® as a Fat Replacement in Muffins

Stephanie Reading & Emily DeLacey

The purpose of this study was to test the characteristics and acceptability of muffins using Citri-Fi®, a citrus pulp functional food ingredient, as a fat replacement. Sensory and objective tests were conducted to understand the differences in tenderness, moistness, chewiness, preference, height, width, puncture and compression force. Objective tests measured height and width using a caliper, the Warner Bratzler Shear Press to measure force required to cut a muffin, the TA.XT2 Texture Analyzer to measure the compression and withdrawal force using a punch probe. 26-32 male and female college students participated as judges. Statistical significance was determined using analysis of variance and Tukey’s LSD tests (p<0.05). Duo-trio tests found that judges could tell the difference between the control and the ½ fat replacements but not between the ¾ fat replacements. The control muffins were the tenderest and were about the same width as the ½ fat replacements. The ½ fat replacements were the moistest, the tallest and about the same amount of chewiness and the ¾ fat replacements. The ¾ fat replacements took the most force to compress, puncture, shear and were the widest. There was significant difference in the mean preference ratings between the three samples of muffins. The control group scored the highest. These findings suggest that Citri-Fi® may not be an acceptable substitute for fat replacement in muffins.




 Megan Hilleary, Kayla Shelton, & Alison Weppler


The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of ground chia seed as a partial and total fat replacement in a baked commercial cake mix.  Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death, largely due to the contributing risk factor of high saturated fat intake in the American diet.  Chia seeds contain a significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and calcium all in which aid in decreasing CHD risk factors.  Three variations of chocolate cake mini-muffins were used for testing: a control using the commercial recipe with 99 g vegetable oil, a partial modification using 44 g ground chia seed and 49.5 g vegetable oil at a 2:1 volume ratio, and a 100% oil replacement with 88 g ground chia seed.  The USDA database revealed several positive nutrient claims; the partial replacement is a reduced fat and reduced saturated fat product, and the 100% replacement is a reduced calorie, reduced fat, reduced saturated fat, good source of fiber and good source of calcium product compared to the original recipe.  27 – 29 untrained judges recruited from the Central Washington University campus participated in sensory evaluation tests.  Four objective tests were administered to measure penetration force, compression force, height, and percent moisture content of all samples.  Sensory evaluation showed significant differences in preference, sweetness, and tenderness.  The control was rated the most preferred and sweetest, but the least tender.  Preference was the only significant difference found between the two replacements in sensory evaluation.  Objective tests found significant differences in penetration force, compression force, height, and percent moisture content. The 100% replacement product had the highest measurements in all four tests while the control had the lowest.  This study showed that ground chia seed is an acceptable fat replacement in a baked good with improved health benefits. 


Fibersym RW™ is an Acceptable Flour Substitute to Increase Fiber Content in Shortbread Cookies

Jennifer Cottrell, Amanda Thompson, & Julie Thrasher

Fibersym RW was substituted for part of the flour in shortbread cookies to produce products that met the Food and Drug Administration standards for “good” and “excellent” sources of fiber.  The variations consisted of a control group that contained no fiber, a group containing a “good source” of fiber, and a final group that contained an “excellent source” of fiber.  Objective tests were performed to measure shear force, weight and height of the cookie variations. 24 random judges were obtained from various nutrition classes.  Sensory tests were  then performed in order to determine if there were significant differences in sweetness intensity, tenderness, acceptability and overall preference.  The results of the various tests showed that there was a significant difference in height, tenderness and acceptability.  The “excellent source” shortbread cookie had a significantly higher mean score for acceptability and tenderness than the control group.  In measuring overall preference scores, there was no significant difference between the three variations.  These findings conclude that Fibersym RW is an acceptable partial substitute for flour in shortbread cookies.


Non-Fat Yogurt Used as a Fat Replacement in Chocolate Brownies

 Tyler Johnson, Jordan Moore and Krystal Sanchez

Non-fat plain yogurt was used as a fat replacement for butter in chocolate brownies, in which three variations were tested: control (original recipe), reduced-fat (half butter, half yogurt), and low-fat (all yogurt). Sensory evaluation was conducted on a total of 24 CWU students, faculty, and staff members to test for tenderness, moisture intensity, sweetness intensity, and overall preference. Objective tests were performed using the TA.XT2 to measure penetration force and vernier calipers to measure brownie height. The results showed significant differences in sweetness, tenderness, preference, height and texture. There was not a significant difference in moisture intensity. This leads us to conclude that non-fat plain yogurt is an acceptable fat replacement for butter in chocolate brownies when only considering the physical attributes of tenderness, texture and height. The acceptability of yogurt as a butter replacement when considering sweetness, moisture and preference cannot be determined based on the current results, so further research is suggested.



Acceptance of Enova Oil and Egg Beaters with Added Lecithin as Vegetable Oil and Egg Substitutes in Fudge Brownies.

Chelsea Murphy, Cody Noyes, & Shawna Lunder

Research was conducted to determine acceptable substitutes in a box brownie mix to make a healthier option. The first substitute was Enova oil for the original vegetable oil, and the second was Enova for the vegetable oil with an addition of Egg Beaters with lecithin for regular eggs in the recipe. There were 40 college-aged judges used on four subjective tests along with 20 implementations of two objective tests. Judges were recruited via extra credit opportunity and random participation. Tests were conducted between two different days, with three subjective tests preformed on each day, and both objective tests were done on the same day to ensure reliability of findings. Statistics show that although all three forms of the brownies are considered acceptable by sensory evaluation, there are statistical significances between them in several of the tests preformed. Statistical significances were shown between the Egg Beaters with lecithin in comparison to the control and Enova replacement substitutes in the chewiness and Moistness sensory evaluations. The Egg Beaters with lecithin brownies were also statistically different from the other two substitutes when compared using height calipers and the TA.xT2 compression force tests. 


Enova Is An Acceptable Fat Substitute for Vegetable Oil In Betty Crocker Chocolate Fudge Cake Mix

 Allen Fitzpatrick, Desiree McAllister, & Rachel Prokop

This experiment tests whether Enova oil is an acceptable substitute for vegetable oil in Betty Crocker Chocolate Fudge Cake. Three cakes varieties are tested. The control cake consists of 100% vegetable oil, the first modified cake is made of 100% Enova oil and the second modified cake is a reduced fat version of Enova oil. Objective tests measure the cake height using calipers and the TA.XT2 to measure penetrating force. Sensory attributes are tested using triangle, preference, moistness, and sweetness tests. Fifty-two untrained Central Washington University students are judges for sensory evaluation.




The purpose of the research study was to reduce the amount of fat in a chai-spiced cookie recipe (4) by 50 % to determine acceptability and any differences caused by decreasing the recipe’s fat content.  Three variations were used: 1) the Control Cookie, which was made from the original recipe (½ cup margarine was used), 2) the Reduced Fat Cookie, which was made with 50 % less fat compared to the original recipe (¼ cup margarine was used), and 3) the Reduced Fat Prune Cookie, which was made with 50 % less fat compared to the original recipe (¼ cup margarine was used), and ¼ cup prune puree was added to the recipe. 

Thirty-five judges were recruited for sensory evaluation of the three cookie variations, using five tests: Duo-Trio, Triangle, Sweetness, Tenderness, and Preference.  Objective testing was also performed, and three tests were used: Vernier Calipers, Warner Bratzler, and TA.XT2.  Results from sensory evaluation showed a significant difference in the following test: sweetness intensity, tenderness (Table 1).  However, for the preference test, there was no significant difference between the three cookie variations.  Results from objective evaluation showed a significant difference in the following tests: Vernier Calipers (height), Warner Bratzler (tenderness), and TA.XT2 (tenderness).


Associate Dean and Professor Ethan Bergman finding some humor in the research...


Professor Kelly Pritchett in her first exposure to the Experimental Foods posters...


Dean Connie Lambert learning new ways of using her Chia seeds...


Ruth Ann Stacy from the Human Subjects Review Committee office wondering if Citri-Fi is GRAS...


Professor Linda Cashman trying to hold in her enthusiasm...


and Professor Virginia Bennett dreaming of some chai-spiced cookies!


Thanks to all of our reviewers (including Professor Susan Hawk) and our special guests for participating in the 2008 Experimental Foods poster presentation!