NUTR 440 - Experimental Foods

2006 Food Research Abstracts



Chardonnay Grape Seed Flour as an Acceptable Partial Substitution for All-Purpose Flour in a Fudge Cookie Baked Good Product.

Alexandria Arriaga, Jamie Pellicer-McCann, and Jamey Peters.

                Though health benefits may be derived from a diet inclusive of polyphenols (1, 2, 3, 4), foods naturally high in this class of antioxidant are typically bitter, astringent, and are found to be less acceptable in consumer evaluations (5). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of partial substitution of all-purpose flour with Chardonnay Grape Seed Flour (GSF). Forty-five untrained volunteers from Central Washington University partook in the sensory evaluation of a baked product containing 100% all-purpose flour (APF), 5% substitution of APF with GSF, and 10% substitution of APF with GSF. No significant differences were found in sensory evaluations consisting of duo-trio tests, triangle tests, and the assessment of bitterness, sweetness, moistness, and preference using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Objective tests performed included measurements of density, puncture force using a TA.XT2 texture analyzer 2mm puncture probe, puncture force using a TA.XT2 texture analyzer 60° acrylic cone probe and compression force. Significant differences were found in the puncture force using a 60° acrylic cone probe between APF and 10% GSF, and between 5% GSF and 10% GSF with the later in both instances requiring less puncture and force than the former sample variation. Overall results indicate that GSF as a partial substitute for APF in a baked good produces a product that is both high in polyphenols and acceptable in consumer evaluations.




Zhenya Balandova, Heather Walker, Kasey Southards

Low fat diet can help reduce risk factors for many leading causes of death today, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some types of cancers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Benefat as a partial or whole fat substitute in chocolate chip cookies. Sensory evaluation was done on a total of 55 student judges to find tenderness, flavor, and moisture intensity, and texture and overall preference. Difference test were done to see if subjects could tell the difference between the cookies. Objective testing was performed using TA.XT2 to measure the shear and compression force, and vernier calipers to measure cookie height. The results identify moisture and tenderness to be increased with the amount of Benefat in the cookie. However, flavor intensity, and texture and overall preference had no significant difference. Therefore, Benefat is an acceptable substitute for chocolate chip cookies.



Anna Carr, Melissa Moser, Charity Spaulding

Reduced sodium and increased potassium intake may lower blood pressure and help reduce stroke risk in certain populations. This study determined consumer acceptance of SOLO™ salt substitute as a replacement for iodized salt in split pea soup. Three batches of a traditional Betty Crocker split pea soup were prepared as directed. A standard 100 % salt recipe was used as a control. SOLO™ was added to each of the other two soup batches to replace the sodium chloride in the standard recipe by 50 and 100 %, respectively. Triangle difference sensory test results showed significant (p<.05) difference between 100% salt and 100% SOLO™ treatments.  68 untrained CWU students evaluated the three samples of soup for overall preference, preference based on saltiness, metallic aftertaste, bitterness intensity and saltiness intensity. Sensory scores for overall preference and preference based on saltiness were lower for both SOLO™ versions compared to 100 % salt (p<.05). No significant difference between treatments was found for metallic aftertaste, bitterness intensity, or saltiness intensity. Perhaps the addition of spices, herbs or flavors would make the SOLO™ soup as acceptable as the high salt varieties.


Fibersym May be an Acceptable Fiber Supplement in Corn Muffins 

Alicia Casad, Katie Hummel, and Francis Razey

This study involved testing of three different corn muffins to determine the effects of adding Fibersym brand fiber on sensory and objective properties. The different varieties of muffins included a control, a variation that provided a good source of dietary fiber (2.5 g per serving), and a variation that provided an excellent source of fiber (5 g per serving). Twenty untrained Central Washington University student judges performed a series of sensory tests that included triangle, duo-trio, chewiness and moisture intensity, and overall preference.  Three objective tests were performed, two that analyzed the texture of the muffins, and one that measured the height of the muffins.  A significant difference was detected between the control and excellent source muffin, and the control muffin was significantly more preferred than either of the Fibersym muffins.  The control muffin was also significantly more moist than the excellent source muffin.  Both variations of Fibersym muffins required significantly more compression force than the control, and significant differences were found among all three muffins for shear force.  The control muffin was found to be significantly shorter than both the Fibersym muffins.  While some significant differences were found between the groups containing Fibersym, results showed that the differences were small and Fibersym may still be an acceptable addition to foods.  The health benefits of fiber, which include reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, diverticular disease, serum cholesterol levels, and blood glucose levels, make the small differences found in Fibersym muffins acceptable.


Potato Starch is an Acceptable Substitute for Tapioca Flour in a Gluten-Free Yellow Cake

Stephanie Collier, Kimberly Green, Kindra Johnson

            A gluten-free yellow cake made with white rice flour and tapioca flour was tested against a cake with half tapioca flour and half potato starch and a cake with all potato starch. These variations were used to determine if potato starch is an acceptable substitute for tapioca flour in a gluten-free yellow cake. There were a total of 60 Central Washington University students used as judges in this study.  There were five sensory tests used, a triangle test, an overall preference test, a preference for texture test, a flavor intensity test, and a moisture intensity test.  The objective tests that were run include a viscosity test, a caliper measurement, and a TA.XT2 texture analysis.  After the data was collected it was statistically analyzed into a calculated mean, standard deviation, and a Fischer’s Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) table.  This table was used to calculate Tukey’s LSD and show if there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the control and the tested variations.  The triangle test indicated that there is no significant difference (p>0.05) between the variations and the control. The TA.XT2 texture analyzer found that the potato starch creates a denser, tackier cake than the tapioca flour control. When analyzing height, based on caliper measurements, the data suggests that the potato starch makes a shorter cake than tapioca flour.  Based on the data, potato starch is an acceptable substitute for tapioca flour.  The objective testing found that the potato starch creates a shorter, denser, tackier cake than tapioca flour. Although the objective data does shows that there is a significant difference (p<0.05) between the potato starch variation and the control variation, the sensory data indicates that the judges did not find a significant difference (p>0.05) in taste.


Sensory Evaluation and Objective Measurements of FiberAid as an Acceptable Prebiotic in Brownies

Katelyn Dickison, Madeline Tucker, and Tiffany Wills

Prebiotics have been shown to improve digestive health and contribute to GI regularity.  This study determined the acceptability of FiberAid® as a prebiotic agent in brownies.  FiberAid® is a polysaccharide derived from the American Larch tree, and is a prebiotic and dietary fiber source.  Three variations of brownies were prepared from Pillsbury boxed brownies; a control with no FiberAid®, and two variations with 0.5% and 1.0% total weight respectively.   The height was objectively measured with a Vernier Caliper and the texture was analyzed by the TA-XT2 universal texture analyzer.  The mean heights were as follows; control 21.9 ± 2.9mm, 0.5% 22.5 ± 2.2mm, 1.0% 21.4 ± 1.7mm.  These results show that there was not a significant difference between variations (p≤0.05).  The mean values for texture were as follows; control 258.4 ± 56.8g, 0.5% 249.1 ± 39.3g, 1.0% 210.7 ± 56.9g.  The TA-XT2 results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the 1.0% variation (p≤0.05). The variation that contained 1.0% FiberAid® was less tough than the control. Sensory testing was conducted to determine consumer acceptability using extended triangle testing.  Thirty three judges participated and were not able to distinguish the variations from one another (difference analysis).  Results show that FiberAid® is not detectable in these amounts by the consumer and is an acceptable prebiotic agent.


The Effect of Pizzey’s Flax/Fish Blend Meal on Peanut Butter Cookies: The First Company to Offer a Two-Year Guaranteed Flaxseed Product

Shireen Dow, Sophia Kraljevich, Maria Aragon

                The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Pizzey’s flax/fish meal in peanut butter cookies. Four variations of a peanut butter cookie recipe (1) were used: 1) the control cookie which was not modified in any way from the original recipe (from this control, three types of cookies were modified), 2) 43.3 g (per double batch, 50 cookies) of Bob’s Red Mill Flaxseed meal was added to the original recipe to create an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acid, 3) 22.2 g of Pizzey’s Flax/fish meal was added to create a good source of omega-3 fatty acid, and 4) 44.5 g of Pizzey’s Flax/fish meal was added to produce a cookie with an excellent source of omega-3’s.

                Thirty-four untrained judges were recruited from Central Washington University to complete the sensory tests (three triangle, preference, moistness, aftertaste, texture). The objective tests used included a Universal Texture Analyzer, TA.XT2, (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY), height using vernier calipers, and weight in grams using a scale.

                From the results of the tests, the control was preferred over the flaxseed meal variations. However, the test results did not deviate far from the control.


Ginger Snap Cookies Fortified with a Multi-vitamin and Calcium

Supplement to 19 % of the DRI Makes an Acceptable Product

Kate London, Jennifer McNeely, Erin Sellers , Vu Tran

The standard American diet does not necessarily allow for an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals.  The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of adding 19 % and 100% of the DRI of multi-vitamins and calcium citrate to ginger snap cookies. Adding 19 % of the DRI to cookies makes the cookies a good source of vitamins and minerals and adding 100 % of the DRI makes the cookies an excellent source of vitamins and minerals. Twenty-two subjects participated in sensory tests to determine the intensity of chewiness, bitterness, sweetness, saltiness, and overall preference. The results indicated that there is a significant difference between the control cookie and the 100% DRI fortified cookie, in almost every category.  Objective tests included Warner Bratzler Shear Apparatus test for tenderness, TA.XT2 texture analyzer for penetration force, and the caliper height measurement using three cookies height.   The objective tests for penetration force showed a significantly higher force penetration between control and when compared to the 19% DRI and 100% DRI.  The 100% DRI cookie was significantly taller than the other two variations.  Overall, fortifying vitamins and calcium citrate to ginger snap cookies are acceptable supplements only in a 19% DRI amount. 


Omega-3 Powder May Be an Acceptable Fortification in Peanut Butter Cookies

Nicole MacRae, Erika Stevens, Min Kim

Research has demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acid (EPA, DHA, and ALA) supplements have some positive effects on triglycerides and HDL levels (1).  This study examines the acceptability of adding omega-3 powder to peanut butter cookies. Although there is no current DRI for EPA and DHA, research suggests consuming 4 grams of EPA, DHA, and ALA combined. Each cookie was fortified with 0 percent (control), 10 percent (good source of omega-3), and 20 percent (excellent source of omega-3) of the suggested dietary intake. The 10 percent variation contained .4 grams of omega-3 powder while the 20 percent variation contained .8 grams of omega-3 powder.  Forty-one human subjects were used in this study.  The judges evaluated the peanut butter cookies for moistness, after-taste, texture, and overall preference using a hedonic scale. A good source of fortification from omega-3 powder resulted in an acceptable peanut butter cookie. Two different triangle-test variations were conducted comparing the control to the 10 percent and 20 percent. A significant difference was found between the control and the 10 percent and the control and the 20 percent (P<.05). Judges preferred the control and 10 percent variations over the 20 percent variation.



Enova is an Acceptable Oil Substitute in Funfetti Cake

Jessica Playter, Kari Christianson, Kylee Gordon

This study involved testing of three different Funfetti cakes to determine the effects of Enova substitution on objective and sensory qualities.  The different varieties arranged were a 100% Enova substitution and a 50% Enova substitution, both compared to a control.  Twenty untrained Central Washington University student judges evaluated the cakes for sensory differences including triangle tests, duo trio tests, sweetness, moisture, and overall preference.  Objective testing was done to determine physical differences between the cakes.  Height was evaluated with a caliper while a TAXT2 was used to measure compression force with various instruments.  Significant differences were found in objective testing however, there was no significant difference during sensory testing.  Enova was found to be an acceptable substitute for oil in Funfetti cake.


Cream Cheese Variables For A Healthier Cheesecake

M.R. Rollolazo, M.M. Kilkelly, A.M. Basinger

            The purpose of this study was to find a reasonable substitute for the original cream cheese recipe that included a high portion of fat. A total of three cheesecakes were made for this study. A control cake consisted of regular cream cheese and the other two variables contained light cream cheese and the other with fat free cream cheese.  Forty-two untrained judges volunteered their time to test our cheesecake samples. Each judge was given a sweetness and triangle test to see if they could distinguish the odd sample of three cheesecakes in which two samples were the same. Half of the judges also received a creaminess and acceptability test while the other half received a saltiness and preference test. The results for the triangle test concluded that the light and fat free cream cheesecakes were the only cakes the judges could tell a difference between. The control was preferred over the other two variables and the reduced fat turned out to be an acceptable alternative for preference. Each of the three cheesecakes was given two objective tests for stickiness and height. To determine the height, we used vernier calipers measuring from the bottom of the cake to the top. Results showed there were no significant differences for height between the different variable of cakes. For stickiness, we used the Universal Texture Analyzer which we found a significant difference required for penetration for all three cakes using a cone probe. Sensory tests concluded that the control and fat free had significant differences in saltines, acceptability, and preference. There turned out to be no significant differences between sweetness and creaminess between the three cheesecakes. 


Addition of Hi-maize, Natural Dietary Fiber, to a commercial cake Mix

Megan Romo, Charlene Mize, Kimberly Warfel

This research project examined the acceptability of Natural Hi-maize Resistant Starch (National Starch Food Innovation, Indianapolis) as a fiber additive to the commercial cake mix, Pillsbury Funfetti (General Mills, Minneapolis).  Dietary fiber intake among American adults averages 15g, approximately half the recommended amount of 25-38g (1).  Finding an acceptable way to increase fiber in commercial cake mix could aid in increasing total dietary fiber intake.  Hi-maize Resistant Starch passes through the small intestine, and is broken down in the large intestine by GI bacteria (2). This study found Hi-maize to be an acceptable fiber additive to Funfetti cake muffins when used in the amounts to achieve 10% daily value (DV), for a good source, and 20% DV, for an excellent source of fiber per serving.  Three variations of mini sized Funfetti cake muffins consisted of an unaltered control, 10% DV, and 20% DV of fiber.  Sensory evaluation was completed by untrained university student judges and objective evaluation was measured with food sensory equipment.  Sensory measurement of sweetness intensity showed the control to be sweeter than the 20% DV.  The objective evaluation of height showed 20% DV as being taller than both 10% DV and the control. No differences were found between the control, 10% DV, and 20% DV when measuring preference, texture, moisture, batter viscosity and penetration force.



Many thanks to our reviewers (Ethan Bergman, PhD, RD, Linda Cashman, MS, RD, and Virginia Bennett, PhD, RD) as well as our special guests Steve Jefferies (chair of the Department of Health, Human Performance, and Nutrition) and Connie Lambert (Dean of the College of Education and Professional Studies)

Professor Ethan Bergman would like to taste those brownies fortified with prebiotics.

Standing room only crowds viewing the posters in the Science Building

Dean Lambert and Professor Linda Cashman quizzing a student.

Steve Jefferies, Department chair, getting a lesson about flax meal and omega-3 fats.

Professor Bennett learns about what omega-3 fats can do to the eating quality of cookies.