NUTR 440 – Experimental Foods –

2006 Food Research Abstracts


The Acceptability of Flax Flour as a Partial Flour Substitute in Pumpkin Harvest Loaf. 

Ann Elkins, Kelsey Fleming, Rochelle Jorgensen

Omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce the risk of developing Coronary Heart Disease.  Flax has been shown to be an excellent source of this type of fat.  Through partial substitution of flax flour with all-purpose flour, Omega-3 fatty acids can be incorporated into the diet.  In a Pumpkin Harvest Loaf recipe, this idea was utilized.  Three variations were prepared:  a control, 2.4% flax flour substitution, and 2.4% flax flour substitution plus gluten.  All other ingredients, preparation, and baking techniques were held constant.  Sensory evaluations took place in environmentally controlled booths using 30 untrained judges.  Sensory evaluations included rank order, texture, preference, moistness, and two triangle difference tests.  Objective tests included height and density.  Results from tests revealed no significant differences between variations.  Moistness was the exception.  Test results from this test disclosed that variations using flax flour were significantly moister than the control.


Partial Substitution of White Wheat Flour in Peanut Butter Cookies Results in an Acceptable Higher Fiber Product.

Lanie Martin, Samantha Belanger, and Sara Berry

The ADA recommends that half the daily consumption of grains should be whole grains. A way to increase the amount of these grains in the diet could be to use white wheat flour, which is whole grain. This study compared the use of white wheat flour to all-purpose in a standardized peanut butter cookie recipe from a JIF label. The recipe variations used were a control of 100% all-purpose, 50% substitution of white wheat flour, and 100% white wheat.  These variations allow for higher fiber content claim although a nutritional claim cannot be made.  Objective tests measured height, penetration, and break force.  Sensory evaluations using 19-24 judges, tested sweetness, peanut butter intensity, texture, aftertaste, difference, and preference. Many tests showed no significant differences between samples; however the 100% substitution of white wheat is a less desirable product than the other samples.  The 50% substitution was comparable to the control.



Garbanzo Bean Flour is an Acceptable Partial Substitute for All-Purpose Flour in Chocolate Chip Cookie Bars.

Dana M Storlie, Molly J. Maxfield, Nathan M. Decker

This study involved testing of three different chocolate chip cookie bars to determine the effects of flour substitutions on physical and sensory qualities.  The different varieties prepared were compared to 50% garbanzo bean flour and a 50% flaxseed flour substitution, compared to a control.  Thirty untrained Central Washington University student judges evaluated the bars for general differences (duo trio tests), sweetness, aftertaste, and overall preference.  Objective testing was done to determine physical differences between the cookie bars.  Height was evaluated with a caliper, and a TAXT2 was used to measure compression force, puncture force, and sheer force.  Significant differences were found in both objective and sensory testing, however, preference test results revealed that garbanzo bean flour is an acceptable substitute.



White Whole Wheat Flour Is an Acceptable Substitute for All-purpose Flour in Shortbread Cookies.

Megan Erickson, Tyra Halverson, Emily Kelley

A diet rich in whole grains has been shown to reduce the risks of heart disease, cancer, and stroke.  White whole wheat flour has the benefits of whole wheat flour with similar characteristics to white flour and may be an acceptable substitute for white flour in baked products.  This study examined four variations of shortbread cookies including cookies made with whole wheat flour, 100% white whole wheat flour, 51% white whole wheat and 49% all-purpose flours, and all-purpose flour using sensory and objective evaluation.  Using 51% white whole wheat flour was found to be an acceptable substitute for all-purpose flour in both objective and sensory evaluation including preference, texture, bitter and sweet flavors, density, and breaking force while using 100% white whole wheat flour was found to have similar characteristics to whole wheat flour.



Omega-3 Powder is an Acceptable Fortification in Pillsbury Funfetti Cupcakes

Katie Hingston, Emily Ogura, and Nikki Beaudry

Increasing dietary intake of omega-3 (Alpha-Linolenic Acid, ALA) fatty acids may help prevent coronary artery disease, hypertension, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (1). This study examined the acceptability of adding Ocean Nutrition’s Omega-3 powder, micro-encapsulated fish oil to Pillsbury Funfetti cupcakes. The cupcakes were fortified with 1.0 g, 0.5 g and 0.25 g of ALA per serving. Judges evaluated the cupcakes for tenderness, sweetness and acceptability, using a hedonic scale. The judges were unable to differentiate between the control (0 g of ALA) and the variations (P<0.05); concluding that all samples were found to be acceptable. Duo-trio and triangle tests were also conducted on the 1.0 g and 0.5 g cupcakes, both were compared to the control. A significant difference was found between the 1.0 g variation and the control in the duo-trio test (P<.05). Overall, this study shows that omega-3 powder is an acceptable fortification in Pillsbury Funfetti cupcakes.      



Fructose and Litesse are Acceptable Substitutes for  Sucrose in Baked Goods.

Mary Hirst, Joe Tibay, and Jeanne Wear

The objective for this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting fructose for sucrose in muffins and using Litesse as a sugar substitute.  Three treatments were made. The control used sucrose, one variation used fructose, and one variation used fructose with Litesse.  Untrained judges (n=35) were able to distinguish the fructose products from the control.  Judges didn’t have any preference to any particular muffin and found each to be equally tender.  Judges found that fructose wasn’t as sweet as sucrose. Fructose also made a taller, but more tender muffin.  Adding Litesse lowered these effects of fructose and increased the shear force.  Fructose and adding Litesse make a good substitute for sucrose.



Xylitol is an Acceptable Sugar Substitute for Cookies

Emily Klein, Megan McQuade and Alyssa Wood T

The purpose of this study was to find if xylitol is an acceptable sugar substitute in chocolate chip cookies (without the chocolate chips). Two variations, 50% xylitol and 100% xylitol were tested against the control. Sensory evaluation included triangle, sweetness, moistness, aftertaste preference and overall preference tests using twenty-six untrained judges. Objective evaluations included height and width tests using a Vernier Caliper and a shear force test using a Universal Texture Analyzer (TA.XT2), with ten replicated measurements for each variation. The statistical analysis was determined by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s LSD, p < 0.05. All of the sensory and objective evaluations suggest significant differences. Our tests indicate that 100% xylitol is not an acceptable replacement in cookies; however 50% xylitol replacement is acceptable.



Objective and Sensory Evaluation of Three Variations of Funfetti Cupcakes

Jenna Krause, Jillian Stefani, and Jackie Eisen

In this study sensory and objective testing of three different mixes of Funfetti cupcakes were used to determine the effects of ingredient modification on physical and subjective characteristics.  The different versions of the cake included a control using one hundred percent vegetable oil, a slightly modified version using half vegetable oil and half flaxseed oil, and a version using one hundred percent flaxseed oil. Forty Central Washington University students and professors judged the cakes on sweetness, tenderness, acceptability, and preference. The objective tests showed significant differences in cake height between all three variations of the cupcakes, as well as significant differences in cone penetration force for all variations. Although all objective tests showed significant differences between the cupcakes, the sensory evaluations didn’t exhibit any significant differences which showed that both cupcake variations were acceptable substitutions.



Omega-3 Fish Powder is an Acceptable Additive in Bran Muffins

Tonia Martin, Malinda Balo, and Dana Buck

Research shows that there is an inadequate intake of EPA and DHA fatty acids.  This study aimed to add omega-3 to a standard bran muffin recipe.  Addition of omega-3 fish powder to muffins can provide an EPA and DHA alternative to fish.  This can help increase the consumption of EPA and DHA.  This study involved adding two different amounts of omega-3 to bran muffins.  These muffins were then tested to determine the effects of the omega-3 powder on physical structure and sensory qualities.  Thirty untrained judges evaluated the muffins. The sensory results showed that the products were mostly comparable to the control with no significant differences in sweetness, preference or tenderness.  Sample A was significantly less moist and less tender than the control, while sample B showed no significant differences. Objective results showed that there was no significant difference between the samples and the control for height, tenderness and moisture.



Whey Protein is an Acceptable Partial Egg Substitute in Chocolate Brownies

Amanda McBride, Deanna Eisele, and Philip Dougherty

Eggs contribute to dietary fat and cholesterol and cannot be consumed by those with egg food allergies. Whey is a protein complex derived from milk that is nutritious and has similar qualities to eggs in baked products. The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of replacing 50% and 75% of the egg content in chocolate brownies with whey protein. Thirty-Seven subjects participated in sensory tests for difference, texture, sweetness, moistness, and overall preference.  The results indicated that there is a significant difference between control and experimental groups (P<0.05), but no difference in texture, moisture, sweetness and overall preference was detected. Objective test for penetration force showed a significantly higher force penetration between the control when compared to 50% and 75% egg replacement (P<0.05). No significant difference was detected in height. Overall, whey protein is an acceptable partial egg substitute in chocolate brownies. 



The Supplementation of Ground Flaxseed Produces an Acceptable Quality in Banana Muffins

Eva Melik, Jessica Oberholser, andKristy Walker

A diet high in a-linolenic acid is beneficial in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study examined how quality of a low fat, low cholesterol banana muffin recipe was affected by supplementation of ground flaxseed, which is rich in a-linolenic acid.  Flaxseed was added at 0%, 10%, and 20% of the Daily Recommended Value of a-linolenic acid for males. Compared to the control, the 10% and 20% represent good and excellent sources per muffin, respectively. Judges from Central Washington University (n=17 - 28) evaluated samples on a nine-point hedonic scale for moistness intensity, sweetness intensity, and tenderness. Additional tests included two triangle tests and a preference test using a nine-point “Smiley” scale. Objective tests included muffin height, compression, and penetration. Data was assessed with the Analysis of Variance procedure in Microsoft Excel Data Analysis and Tukey’s LSD (a=0.05). Judges rated the good source as a significantly more tender product than the excellent source. Puncture force showed the only statistical significance of the three objective tests. The 10% variation was significantly more tender than the 20% and control variations. Overall, this research found that supplementation of flaxseed produced acceptable banana muffins. 



Sensory and Objective Evaluations Show that Enova Oil is an Acceptable Shortening Substitute in Gingerbread Cookies.

Sarah N. Richey, Emily M. Hobbs , and Mercedes J. Clouser

This study examined the acceptability of using three different fat substitutes in Gingerbread Cookies: Enova Oil, Benefat and Rice Bran Oil. Each fat substitute was substituted cup for cup with shortening in the original recipe.  Forty volunteers evaluated the cookies rating them on chewiness, ginger intensity, and preference.  When compared to the control, all ratings revealed a significant difference except those for Enova Oil.  Objective testing showed the height of the cookies all differed from the control.  Cookie height increased with all fat substitutions; whereas, both cone probe and distance tests showed only a significant difference in Benefat. Ultimately, this study demonstrates that Enova Oil is an acceptable shortening substitute in Gingerbread Cookies.



StarchLite is an Acceptable Addition to Flour Tortillas

Ashley Smith; Jackie Arbuthnot; Doan Nghiem

StarchLite is an all natural white bean extract (Phaseolus vulgaris) that has been found to delay digestion and absorption of high starch foods by inhibiting enzyme alpha-amylase.   The addition of StarchLite results in a lowered Glycemic Index (GI) of starchy foods (2). The purpose of the study was to evaluate StarchLite as an acceptable addition to flour tortillas.  Objective and sensory tests were used to evaluate flour tortillas containing StarchLite and flour tortillas without StarchLite.  Objective tests found significant differences in height, diameter, and tenderness between the control and the StarchLite samples.  Twenty-two untrained judges participated in sensory evaluation of the flour tortillas.  The judges made evaluations using 9 point hedonic rating scales for saltiness, tenderness, and preference.  The judges also participated in an extended duo trio difference test.  Judges scores indicated significant differences in tenderness and saltiness but not in preference.  The results of the duo trio test indicate 18 of the 22 judges could identify the control tortilla from the StarchLite tortilla.  This study concludes that StarchLite is an acceptable addition to flour tortillas.



Addition of Flaxseed Meal to Supplement Omega-3 Fatty Acids is Perceived as Acceptable in Granola Bars

Suzanne K. Bruels, Liane M. Fernyhough, and Stefanie J. Herrington

Consuming adequate amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) have resulted in reducing cardiovascular events, and fortification of myelin sheath (1).  Flax is a reliable source of n-3FA; this study examined the addition of flaxseed meal (FSM) to achieve 50% and 100% of the Adequate Intake (AI) for n-3FA in granola bars.  Twenty judges analyzed the perceived difference of the control to each variation. Twenty judges evaluated the sweetness, moistness, and nut flavor using a nine point structured scale. Fifty judges evaluated granola bars for preference using a hedonic scale.  Three objective tests were conducted using the Universal Texture Analyzer.  The 100% was significantly less sweet, moist, and preferred than the control.  The 50% was not significantly less preferred to the control and no variation was perceived as unlikable.  Overall, the control was the most liked, and the 50% was an acceptable choice for providing an excellent source of n-3FA.



A 50% Fava/Garbanzo Flour Substitution in Pancakes might not be an Acceptable Substitution.

Joselyn Aske and Brandon Inoue

Most Americans do not get the ADA recommended amount of fiber in their diet. Eating adequate amounts of fiber in the diet has been shown to prevent certain types of cancers, help control blood sugar, lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of some chronic diseases (II). Legumes are a good are a good source of fiber. We produced pancakes, a common breakfast food, made with a commercial mixture of garbanzo bean and fava bean flours. Cooking with bean flour will add fiber and additional vitamins and minerals to the pancakes. Overall, the data shows a significant preference towards regular pancakes, instead of the substitutions.



Special thanks to our faculty reviewers:

Ethan Bergman, PhD, RD; Linda Cashman, MS, RD; Virginia Bennett, PhD, RD