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Standards (Initial Level)

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CTL Performance Standards 2009 | 2011

Domain I) : Evidence of Candidate Learning

  • CTL 1.1
  • CTL 1.2
  • CTL 1.3
  • CTL 1.4
  • CTL 1.5
  CTL 1.1 - Teaching in Context
CTL
1.1.1 Demonstrate competency in reading, writing, speaking, critical thinking and calculating as a means of achieving knowledge, making decisions, solving problems, and perceiving possibilities (Bullough & Gitlin, 2001; Taconis, van der Plas, & van der Sanden, 2004)
1.1.2 Exhibit a broad understanding of the various and dynamic communities of knowledge, to include the humanities, physical and natural sciences, and social sciences, and demonstrate knowledge of the state goals and requirements (WAC 181-78A-264). Furthermore, candidates show an understanding of the interaction of the forces which characterize those communities (Huang, 2006; Kincheloe, J.L., Raymond, H.A., & Steinberg, R., 2007).
Residency Cert:
WAC 181-78A-270
WA Standard V: (1) Effective Teaching – A successful teacher candidate demonstrates capacity of the knowledge and skills for effective teaching which ensure a positive impact on student learning by:

1(ii) Integrating subjects across content areas to elicit interdisciplinary forms of reasoning from students, and integrating subject matter across the content areas of reading, mathematical, scientific, and aesthetic reasoning.
  • Candidates connect subject area concepts and differing perspectives
    • differentiated instruction
    • theories of language acquisition
    • stages of language
    • academic language development
  • Candidates demonstrate multiple strategies for integrating subjects across content areas and regularly elicit interdisciplinary forms of reasoning from students
  • Content is systematically analyzed to respond to the academic language needs of student

1(vii) Planning standards-driven curricula to develop problem solving strategies in content areas, candidates:
  • Create learning opportunities for students across content areas using reading, written and oral communication, and technology
  • Engage students in problem-solving that requires high-level thinking processes.
  • Embed inquiry throughout the preparation program; faculty model inquiry-based instruction in all content areas.
  • Include inquiry opportunities when designing student learning.
  CTL 1.2 - Reflective Teaching
CTL
1.2.1 Understands the integration of subject specialization and pedagogical knowledge, such as taking into account the diverse needs and perspectives of students, when representing and organizing material for teaching (Bennett, 2005; Crutchfield, 2003, Enyedy & Mukhopadhyay, 2007; Garza, 2007; Koehler, Mishra, & Yahya, 2007Shulman, 1987).
1.2.2 Possesses and responsibly applies the informational, conceptual, practical, and methodological knowledge of each specialization (Bintz, 2004; Flanigan & Greenwood, 2007; Nokes, Dole, & Hacker, 2007 ).
1.2.3 Relates and utilizes theories of human growth and development to the learning process (Huang, 2006; Schlomerkempter, 2004SGS; Trumbull & Pacheco, 2005).
1.2.4 Demonstrates competence in the appropriate uses of educational technology (Koehler, Mishra, Yahya, 2007; Kritt & Winegar, 2007; Pohan & Dieckmann, 2005).
1.2.5 Develops reflective teaching while integrating theory about instruction with self-knowledge and knowledge of the world of practice to facilitate learning within concrete learning situations (Lightner, Bober, & Willi, 2007; Wallace, Abbott, & Blary, 2007).
1.2.6 Reflects critically on professional issues, taking into account a variety of perspectives and achieving a responsible, informed, and independent position (Franz, Hopper, & Kritsonis, 2007; Vairo, Marcus, & Weiner, 2007).
1.2.7 Analyzes and evaluates his or her own teaching behavior and effectiveness and implements change based on those observations (Kienzler & Smith, 2005; Weld & Funk, 2005)
Residency Cert:
WAC 181-78A-270
WA Standard V: (1) Effective Teaching – A successful teacher candidate demonstrates capacity of the knowledge and skills for effective teaching which ensure a positive impact on student learning by:

1(x) Integrating technology
  • Use technology to support learning goals and activities
  • Ensure students use technology to accomplish learning goals and increase personal production
  • Integrate available and appropriate technology into instruction
  • Expand students’ capacity to improve their learning through use of available and appropriate technology.


WA Standard V: (2) Professional Development – A successful teacher candidate demonstrates capacity of the knowledge and skills for professional development which ensure a positive impact on student learning by:
  • Create learning opportunities for students across content areas using reading, written and oral communication, and technology
  • Utilizing feedback and reflection to improve teaching practice;

    2(i) Developing reflective, collaborative, professional growth-centered practices through regularly evaluating the effects of his/her teaching through feedback and reflection:
    • Articulate the role of reflection in their teaching
    • Work samples contain multiple examples of reflection
    • Demonstrate the ability to adapt and revise instruction to meet specific needs identified through student assessment
    • Articulate ways in which they have modified instruction based on student evidence
    • Evident in all aspects of the candidates work and leads to thoughtful instructional decisions based on identified student academic needs
    • Actively seek opportunities for advance professional development
    • Demonstrate how feedback informs their reflections on their instructional practice and professional development choices
  CTL 1.3 - Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners
CTL
1.3.1 Explains how culture, ethnicity, gender, personality and disability may affect the learning situation and demonstrates ways in which the academic and social challenges presented by diverse learners can be effectively accommodated (Garza, 2007; Ginsberg, 2007; Hasslen & Bacharach, 2007; Robertson & Miller, 2007; Rodriguez, Jones, Pang, & Park, 2004).
1.3.2 Demonstrates competence in integrating content across the curriculum (Bintz, 2004; Brewer, 2006; Olness, 2007; Rothstein & Rothstein, 2007; Spencer & Guillaume, 2006).
1.3.3 Exhibits an awareness of the value of diverse perspectives, tolerance, and respect for others (Ginsberg, 2007; Guerrero, 2007; Koerner & Abdul-Tawwab, 2006; Musil & Hovland, 2005; "No barriers", 2007).
1.3.4 Comprehends and describes the foundations, responsibilities, organization, and governance of the American education system. (Innovation America, 2007).
1.3.5 Develops strategies for effective communication with various constituencies of the schools to include colleagues, parents, students, and community members ( Butin, 2007; Mitchell, Winter, & Martin, 2007; Robertson & Miller, 2007; Sanders, 2007).
Residency Cert:
WAC 181-78A-270
WA Standard V: (1) Effective Teaching – A successful teacher candidate demonstrates capacity of the knowledge and skills for effective teaching which ensure a positive impact on student learning by:

1(i) Using multiple instructional strategies to address individual student needs, including the principles of second language acquisition to address student academic language ability levels and cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
  • Assess student academic language and ability levels through multiple instructional strategies
  • Identify student cultural and linguistic backgrounds
  • Apply principals of second language acquisition and knowledge of student background to meet assessed need;
  • Candidates routinely seek to understand student background by soliciting input from students, families, and multiple school and community resources
  • Students access academic language through multiple instructional strategies designed to address student linguistic needs


1(v) Planning and/or adapting standards-based curricula for diverse student needs that are personalized to the needs of each students, candidates:
  • Determine student capacities and interests; select appropriate learning activities; provide opportunities for student choice in meeting learning targets;
  • Engage students in learning activities that allow them to construct meaningful understanding of the learning targets;
  • Consistently and routinely adapt instruction in response to student learning needs across the curriculum; and
  • Continually seek ways to engage students in becoming active decision-makers in their own learning.


1(viii) Preparing responsible citizens for an environmentally sustainable, globally interconnected, and diverse society, candidates:
  • Use teaching strategies to intentionally develop classroom environments that:
    • demonstrate respect for human dignity and individual rights
    • provide students with strategies for exercising responsible citizenship
    • expand student perspectives and prior knowledge to develop an understanding of environmentally sustainable local, national, and global communities
  • Consistently help students connect individual, classroom, and local concerns with the larger social context.
  • Demonstrate and understanding of how teacher and student decisions and behaviors affect their communities overtime.


1(ix) Ensuring cultural competence in teaching, candidates:
  • Plan and adapt curricula that:
    • provide multiple developmentally and age appropriate strategies for students to access meaningful learning targets
    • use a variety of assessment strategies and data to monitor and improve instruction
    • demonstrate strong connections and understanding between students’ cultural backgrounds, lesson design, and instructional strategies.
  • Create learning environments in which students of all backgrounds are invited to connect personal experiences to new learning.
  • Demonstrate respect of teacher and students’ own and others’ cultural identities through their own and others’ cultural identities through their language and behavior.


1(xi) Involving and collaborating with families and community; informing, involving, and collaborating with families/neighborhoods, and communities in each student’s educational process, including using information about student cultural identity, achievement, and performance, candidates:
  • Use effective strategies for collaborating with families
  • Use community resources to create and conduct learning activities that incorporate connections between student background, lesson design, and student performance.
  • Consistently embed instruction in a family/community context
  • Provide evidence of active engagement with families
  • Systematically use information about student cultural identity, achievement, and performance to guide instruction, language and behavior
  CTL 1.4 - Teaching as a Profession
CTL
1.4.1 Professional educators – those who provide training and those who are trained – recognize the need to be self-reflective (Giovannelli, 2003; Houston & Warner, 2002; Jennings & Potter-Smith, 2002; Kienzler & Smith, 2005; McCaughtry, Cothran, Kulinna, Martin, & Faust, 2005; Mills & Satterthwait, 2000; Risko, et al., 2002; Warren, 2007; Whipp, 2000).
1.4.2 Recognize their responsibility to understand and support learners (Gay, 2000; Johnston, 2003; Tomlinson, 1999/2000).
1.4.3 Recognize their responsibility to create life-long learners (Day, 1999; Kerssen-Griep, Hess, & Tees, 2003).
1.4.4 Recognize that they are professionals engaged in a scholarly, collaborative pursuit (Smith 2001; Warren, 2007).
1.4.5 Through independent analysis and research contributes significantly to the professional knowledge base in a way that benefits his or her own professional growth and growth of students (Reis-Jorge, 2007; Warren, 2007).
1.4.6 Becomes conversant with the basic foundations of education as a profession, including the philosophy, legal, psychology, history, and sociology of education and research foundations of the field (Gardner, 2007; Soltis, 1990).
Residency Cert:
WAC 181-78A-270
WA Standard V: (3) Teaching as a Professional and Professional Contributions – A successful teacher candidate shall demonstrate understanding of teaching a a profession by collaborating in and contributing to school improvement

3(i) Participating collaboratively and professionally in school activities and using appropriate and respectful verbal communication, candidates
  • Participate collaboratively and professionally in school activities
  • Understand and use appropriate respectful verbal and written communication
  • Viewed as members of the school community in which they are placed
  • Monitor verbal and written communication and seek to personalize it to the needs of students


3(ii) Demonstrating knowledge of responsibilities and policies, candidates
  • Demonstrate knowledge of professional, legal, and ethical responsibilities and policies
  • Recognize the practical implications of the professional, legal, and ethical responsibilities and policies that they encounter in school settings
  CTL 1.5 - Creating a Productive Environment
CTL
1.5.1 Demonstrates a repertoire of techniques for the development and implementation of assessment and evaluation of instruction, reflecting diverse theories of learning and instructional design to represent the best and most current research on good practice. Includes frequent use of formative assessment, using appropriate monitoring, adjusting teaching methods, and integrating meaningful learning experiences, resulting in a positive effect on all students (Barell, 2006; Ching, Wang, Shih, & Kedem, 2006; Darling-Hammond, 2006; Ernst & Monroe, 2004; McTighe & O'connor, 2005; Shepard, 2000; Tauber, 2007; Watkins, 2005; Weld & Funk, 2005).
1.5.2 Practices classroom management strategies to encourage democratic classroom interaction and promote independent learning, positive self-esteem, and provide a consistent and positive learning environment, while recognizing and considering cultural, gender, and family backgrounds or needs (Cutri, Rogers, & Montero, 2007; Darder, 1997; Grossman, 2003; Le Roux, 2001; Robinson & Kakela, 2006; Rodriguez, Jones, Pang, & Park, 2004; Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clarke, & Curran, 2004).
Residency Cert:
WAC 181-78A-270
WA Standard V: (1) Effective Teaching – A successful teacher candidate demonstrates capacity of the knowledge and skills for effective teaching which ensure a positive impact on student learning by:

1(iii) Using a variety of assessments to monitor and improve instruction, candidates:
  • Analyze individual, subgroup, and whole class patterns using formative, summative, and student self-assessments aligned with the targets.
  • Actively engage students in the assessment process so they can use assessment results to judge their own progress.
  • Demonstrate that their instructional practices help students develop skills for independent self-assessment so they can establish and apply criteria to judge their own and others’ work.


1(iv) Creating a safe, productive learning environment; implementing classroom/school centered instruction including sheltered instruction that is connected to communities within the classroom and school, and includes knowledge and skills for working with others, candidates:
  • Observe and reflect on students’ and teachers’ background when analyzing student behaviors and can use student input to establish and implement positive classroom norms
  • Demonstrate the skills of classroom leadership, facilitation of difficult conversations, crisis management, and culturally-relevant problem-solving
  • Ensure students are actively engaged in monitoring the learning environment and implementing behavioral norms
  • Demonstrate an understanding of and plan for creating a classroom community that values the contributions of all community members, promotes culturally relevant communication and conflict resolution among community members


1(vi) Ensuring all students articulate learning targets and monitor own progress, candidates:
  • Explicitly align instruction with standards and outcomes
  • Ensure both teacher and students can articulate the target, how to reach the target, and kids of support needed to reach the target.
  • Ensure work samples provide consistent and clear evidence that teacher and students routinely engage in dialogue that articulates, clarifies, and modifies learning targets, as appropriate.


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