Name: 
 

Econ 201 Winter 2006 Final Exam



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

Which of the following is an example of a normative statement?
a.
If the price of a product decreases, quantity demanded increases.
b.
Reducing tax rates on the wealthy would be good for the country.
c.
If the national saving rate were to increase, so would the rate of economic growth.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

2. 

Regan grows flowers and makes ceramic vases. Jayson also grows flowers and makes vases, but Regan is better at producing both. In this case, trade could
a.
benefit both Jayson and Regan.
b.
benefit Jayson, but not Regan.
c.
benefit Regan, but not Jayson.
d.
not benefit Jayson nor Regan.
 
 
The figure below reflects the cost and revenue structure for a monopoly firm. Use it to answer the following questions.

Figure 15-2
201_final_files/i0040000.jpg
 

3. 

Refer to Figure 15-2. Profit will be maximized by charging a price equal to
a.
P0.
b.
P1.
c.
P2.
d.
P3.
 

4. 

Refer to Figure 15-2. If the monopoly firm is currently producing Q3 units of output, then a decrease in output will necessarily cause profit to
a.
remain unchanged.
b.
decrease.
c.
increase as long as the new level of output is at least Q2.
d.
increase as long as the new level of output is at least Q1.
 

5. 

Refer to Figure 15-2. The marginal revenue curve for a monopoly firm is depicted by curve
a.
A.
b.
B.
c.
C.
d.
D.
 

6. 

What would happen to the equilibrium price and quantity of coffee if the wages of coffee-bean pickers fell and the price of tea fell?
a.
Price will fall and the effect on quantity is ambiguous.
b.
Price will rise and the effect on quantity is ambiguous.
c.
Quantity will fall and the effect on price is ambiguous.
d.
Quantity will rise and the effect on price is ambiguous.
 

7. 

If the number of buyers in the market decreases, the
a.
demand in the market will increase.
b.
demand in the market will decrease.
c.
supply in the market will increase.
d.
supply in the market will decrease.
 

8. 

You love peanut butter. You hear on the news that 50 % of the peanut crop in the South has been wiped out, which will cause the price to double by the end of the year. As a result,
a.
your demand for peanut butter will increase by the end of the year.
b.
your demand for peanut butter increases today.
c.
your demand for peanut butter falls as you look for a substitute good.
d.
you decide to give up peanut butter completely.
 

9. 

Production possibilities frontiers are usually bowed outward. This is because
a.
the more resources a society uses to produce one good, the fewer resources it has available to produce another good.
b.
it reflects the fact that the opportunity cost of producing a good falls as one produces more and more of it.
c.
of the effects of technological change.
d.
resources are specialized, that is, some are better at producing particular goods rather than other goods.
 
 
Figure 3-1
201_final_files/i0120000.jpg
 

10. 

Refer to Figure 3-1. If Paul divides his time equally between corn and wheat, he will be able to produce
a.
2 bushels of wheat and 2 bushels of corn.
b.
3 bushels of wheat and 3 bushels of corn.
c.
4 bushels of wheat and 5 bushels of corn.
d.
4 bushels of wheat and 6 bushels of corn.
 

11. 

Refer to Figure 3-1. Assume that Cliff and Paul were both producing wheat and corn, and each were dividing their time equally between the two. Then they decide to specialize in the product they have a comparative advantage in. As a result, total production of corn would
a.
increase by 1 bushel.
b.
increase by 3 bushels.
c.
increase by 5 bushels.
d.
decrease by 2 bushels.
 

12. 

Refer to Figure 3-1. The opportunity cost of 1 bushel of wheat for Cliff is
a.
1/3 bushel of corn.
b.
2/3 bushel of corn.
c.
1 bushel of corn.
d.
3/2 bushels of corn.
 

13. 

Suppose there is a 6 percent increase in the price of good X and a resulting 6 percent decrease in the quantity of X demanded. Price elasticity of demand for X is
a.
1.
b.
6.
c.
0.
d.
infinite.
 

14. 

When quantity demanded responds substantially to changes in price, demand is said to be
a.
elastic.
b.
inelastic.
c.
unit elastic.
d.
perfectly elastic.
 

15. 

Diminishing marginal product suggests that
a.
additional units of output become less costly as more output is produced.
b.
marginal cost is upward sloping.
c.
the firm is at full capacity.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

16. 

In a market economy, economic activity is guided by
a.
the government.
b.
businesses.
c.
central planners.
d.
prices.
 

17. 

When negative externalities are present in a market
a.
private costs will be greater than social costs.
b.
social costs will be greater than private costs.
c.
government regulation to resolve the problem is necessary.
d.
the market will not be able to reach any equilibrium situation.
 

18. 

Average total cost is equal to
a.
output/total cost.
b.
total cost - total quantity of output.
c.
average variable cost + total fixed cost.
d.
total cost/output.
 

19. 

If a binding price ceiling is imposed in a market
a.
there will be a surplus in the market.
b.
the price will be legally forced toward equilibrium price.
c.
there will be a shortage in the market.
d.
market forces will guarantee that the price will be at equilibrium.
 

20. 

The midpoint method is used to compute elasticity because it
a.
automatically computes a positive number instead of a negative number.
b.
uses the same equation that is used to compute slope.
c.
gives the same answer regardless of the direction of change.
d.
automatically rounds quantities to the nearest whole unit.
 

21. 

Average total cost is increasing whenever
a.
total cost is increasing.
b.
marginal cost is increasing.
c.
marginal cost is less than average total cost.
d.
marginal cost is greater than average total cost.
 
 
Figure 4-1
201_final_files/i0250000.jpg
 

22. 

Refer to Figure 4-1. The movement from point A to point B on the graph would be caused by
a.
an increase in price.
b.
a decrease in price.
c.
a decrease in the price of a substitute good.
d.
an increase in income.
 

23. 

A perfectly elastic demand implies that
a.
buyers will not respond to any change in price.
b.
any rise in price above that represented by the demand curve will result in no output demanded.
c.
price and quantity demanded respond proportionally.
d.
price will rise by an infinite amount when there is a change in quantity demanded.
 

24. 

When the price of bubble gum is $0.50, the quantity demanded is 400 packs per day. When the price falls to $0.40, the quantity demanded increases to 600. Given this information and using the midpoint method, you know that the demand for bubble gum is
a.
inelastic.
b.
elastic.
c.
unit elastic.
d.
perfectly inelastic.
 

25. 

Normative analysis refers to what
a.
is.
b.
should be.
c.
maximizes efficiency.
d.
is politically correct.
 

26. 

Other things equal, if the price of a good falls, the consumer surplus
a.
decreases.
b.
is unchanged.
c.
increases.
d.
may increase, decrease, or remain unchanged.
 

27. 

There are very few, if any, good substitutes for motor oil. Therefore,
a.
the supply of motor oil would tend to be price elastic.
b.
the demand for motor oil would tend to be price elastic.
c.
the demand for motor oil would tend to be price inelastic.
d.
the demand for motor oil would tend to be income elastic.
 

28. 

In calculating accounting profit, accountants typically don't include
a.
long-run costs.
b.
sunk costs.
c.
explicit costs of production.
d.
opportunity costs that do not involve an outflow of money.
 

29. 

A tax imposed on a market with an inelastic demand and an elastic supply will cause
a.
sellers to pay the majority of the tax.
b.
buyers to pay the majority of the tax.
c.
the tax burden to be equally divided between buyers and sellers.
d.
the tax burden to be divided, but it cannot be determined how.
 

30. 

The fish in the ocean are an example of a
a.
common resource.
b.
public good.
c.
private good.
d.
natural monopoly.
 
 
Figure 6-2
201_final_files/i0350000.jpg
 

31. 

Refer to Figure 6-2. A binding price ceiling would exist at a price of
a.
$14.00.
b.
$12.00.
c.
$10.00.
d.
$8.00.
 

32. 

Countries usually impose restrictions on free foreign trade to protect
a.
foreign producers.
b.
foreign consumers.
c.
domestic producers.
d.
domestic consumers.
 

33. 

Inefficiency arises from a monopoly because
a.
the monopoly firm earns an excessively large profit.
b.
some buyers will refrain from buying the good, due to the high price.
c.
consumers who buy the goods feel exploited.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

34. 

What will happen to the equilibrium price and quantity of new cars if the price of gasoline rises, the price of steel rises, public transportation becomes cheaper and more comfortable, and auto-workers negotiate higher wages?
a.
Price will fall and the effect on quantity is ambiguous.
b.
Price will rise and the effect on quantity is ambiguous.
c.
Quantity will fall and the effect on price is ambiguous.
d.
Quantity will rise and the effect on price is ambiguous.
 

35. 

The slope of a fairly flat upward-sloping line will be a
a.
small positive number.
b.
large positive number.
c.
small negative number.
d.
large negative number.
 

36. 

If a consumer is willing and able to pay $15.00 for a particular good but the price of the good is $17.00, then the
a.
consumer would have consumer surplus of $2.00.
b.
consumer would increase his/her willingness and ability to pay by earning more.
c.
consumer would not purchase the good and would not have any consumer surplus.
d.
market must not be a perfectly competitive market.
 

37. 

A country has a comparative advantage in a product if
a.
it can produce a product more efficiently.
b.
its domestic price is below the world price.
c.
its domestic price is above the world price.
d.
it can benefit from importing the product.
 

38. 

If a profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market discovers that at its current level of production price is greater than marginal cost it should
a.
shut down.
b.
reduce its output, but continue operating.
c.
keep output the same.
d.
increase its output.
 

39. 

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a perfectly competitive market?
a.
Firms are price takers.
b.
Firms have difficulty entering the market.
c.
There are many sellers in the market.
d.
Goods offered for sale are largely the same.
 

40. 

Antitrust laws allow the government to
a.
prevent mergers.
b.
break up companies.
c.
promote competition.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

41. 

When a variable on an axis of a graph changes, the curve
a.
will not shift.
b.
will shift.
c.
may or may not change. It depends on how the variables are related.
d.
will shift if the variable is on the vertical axis, but not on the horizontal axis.
 

42. 

For two people who are planning to trade two different goods, each will have a comparative advantage in a different good unless
a.
they have exactly the same opportunity cost.
b.
they have agreed in advance on who will produce what and how much each will produce.
c.
the terms of trade are such that neither can gain from trade.
d.
one person has an absolute advantage in both products.
 
 
Figure 8-2
201_final_files/i0480000.jpg
 

43. 

Refer to Figure 8-2. The price sellers receive after the tax is
a.
P1.
b.
P2.
c.
P3.
d.
impossible to determine.
 

44. 

Refer to Figure 8-2. The per unit burden of the tax on the sellers is
a.
P3 - P1.
b.
P3 - P2.
c.
P2 - P1.
d.
Q2 - Q1.
 

45. 

To fully understand how taxes affect economic well-being, we must
a.
assume that economic well-being is not affected if all tax revenue is spent on goods and services for the American public.
b.
know the dollar amount of all taxes raised in the country each year.
c.
compare the reduced welfare of buyers and sellers to the amount of government revenue raised.
d.
compare the expenditures of the 50 state governments with that of the federal government.
 

46. 

Currently you purchase 6 packages of hot dogs a month. You will be graduating in December and will start your new job January 2nd. You have no plans to purchase hot dogs in January. For you, hot dogs are
a.
a "college-only" good.
b.
a normal good.
c.
an inferior good.
d.
a consumer good.
 

47. 

In the 1970s, long lines at gas stations in the United States were primarily a result of the fact that
a.
OPEC raised the price of crude oil in world markets.
b.
U.S. gasoline producers raised the price of gasoline.
c.
the U.S. government imposed a price ceiling on gasoline.
d.
Americans typically commute long distances.
 

48. 

If a firm in a competitive market reduces its output by 20 percent, then as a result the price of its output is likely to
a.
increase.
b.
remain unchanged.
c.
decrease by less than 20 percent.
d.
decrease by more than 20 percent.
 

49. 

For both public goods and common resources, an externality arises because
a.
something of value has no price attached to it.
b.
the goods are undervalued by society.
c.
the social optimum level of output is lower than the market equilibrium's.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

50. 

A production function is a relationship between
a.
inputs and quantity of output.
b.
inputs and revenue.
c.
inputs and costs.
d.
inputs and profit.
 

51. 

Which of the following would NOT be considered a private good?
a.
tennis shoes
b.
pizza
c.
french fries
d.
cable TV
 

52. 

When scientists make good assumptions, they
a.
greatly simplify the problem without substantially affecting the answer.
b.
further complicate an already complicated subject.
c.
can leave out necessary variables that may result in incorrect answers.
d.
may not be able to reach an appropriate conclusion.
 

53. 

Which of the following is NOT correct?
a.
Trade allows for specialization.
b.
Trade is good for nations.
c.
Trade is based on absolute advantage.
d.
Trade allows individuals to consume outside of their individual production possibilities curve.
 
 
Figure 9-1
201_final_files/i0600000.jpg
 

54. 

Refer to Figure 9-1. Without trade, consumer surplus would be
a.
$210.
b.
$245.
c.
$455.
d.
$490.
 

55. 

Refer to Figure 9-1. With free trade, consumer surplus would be
a.
$45.
b.
$80.
c.
$210.
d.
$245.
 

56. 

Refer to Figure 9-1. With free trade, this country would
a.
import 70 baskets.
b.
export 65 baskets.
c.
export 35 baskets.
d.
import 40 baskets.
 

57. 

New oak tables are normal goods. What would happen to the equilibrium price and quantity in the market for oak tables if the price of maple tables rises, the price of oak wood rises, more buyers enter the market for oak tables and the price of wood saws increased?
a.
Price will fall and the effect on quantity is ambiguous.
b.
Price will rise and the effect on quantity is ambiguous.
c.
Quantity will fall and the effect on price is ambiguous.
d.
Quantity will rise and the effect on price is ambiguous.
 

58. 

Cost refers to a seller's
a.
producer surplus.
b.
opportunity cost.
c.
consumer surplus.
d.
willingness to buy.
 

59. 

A tax levied on the supplier of a product shifts the
a.
supply curve upward (or to the left).
b.
supply curve downward (or to the right).
c.
demand curve upward (or to the right).
d.
demand curve downward (or to the left).
 

60. 

Water shortages caused by droughts can be most efficiently lessened by
a.
allowing price to equate the quantity demanded of water with the quantity supplied of water.
b.
restricting water usage of consumers.
c.
arresting anyone who wastes water.
d.
imposing tight price controls on water.
 

61. 

Comparative advantage reflects
a.
productivity.
b.
relative opportunity cost.
c.
efficiency.
d.
terms of trade advantage.
 

62. 

The equilibrium wages of teenagers tend to be
a.
low because teenagers are among the least skilled and least experienced workers.
b.
high because teenagers are among the strongest and most energetic workers.
c.
low because most teenagers live at home and do not require high wages.
d.
high because teenagers tend to join unions.
 

63. 

The marginal product of labor is equal to the
a.
incremental cost associated with a one unit increase in labor.
b.
incremental profit associated with a one unit increase in labor.
c.
increase in labor necessary to generate a one unit increase in output.
d.
increase in output obtained from a one unit increase in labor.
 

64. 

When a good is excludable it means that
a.
one person's use of the good diminishes another person's ability to use it.
b.
people can be prevented from using the good.
c.
no more than one person can use the good at the same time.
d.
everyone will be excluded from obtaining the good.
 

65. 

The demand curve for a product reflects the
a.
value of the product to consumers.
b.
cost of the product to consumers.
c.
quantity consumers are able to purchase.
d.
price the product will sell for in the market.
 

66. 

Which of the following would cause both the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity of number two grade potatoes (an inferior good) to increase?
a.
an increase in consumer income
b.
a decrease in consumer income
c.
greater government restrictions on agricultural chemicals
d.
fewer government restrictions on agricultural chemicals
 

67. 

If the price of a substitute to good X increases, then the
a.
demand for good X will decrease.
b.
market price of good X will decrease.
c.
demand for good X will increase.
d.
quantity demanded for good X will increase.
 

68. 

If one person's use of a good diminishes another person's enjoyment of it, the good is
a.
rival.
b.
excludable.
c.
normal.
d.
exhaustible.
 

69. 

Price discrimination explains why Ivy League universities often set rules that determine prices of admission based on students'
a.
age.
b.
financial resources.
c.
high school GPA.
d.
sex.
 

70. 

Amy buys a new dog for $150. She receives consumer surplus of $100 on her purchase. Her willingness to pay is
a.
$50.
b.
$100.
c.
$150.
d.
$250.
 

71. 

A government-created monopoly arises when
a.
government spending in a certain industry gives rise to monopoly power.
b.
the government exercises its market control by encouraging competition among sellers.
c.
the government gives a firm the exclusive right to sell some good or service.
d.
All of the above could qualify as government-created monopolies.
 

72. 

Which of the following statements about a well-maintained yard best conveys the general nature of the externalities?
a.
A maintained yard conveys a positive externality because it increases the home's market value.
b.
A maintained yard conveys a negative externality because it increases the property tax liability of the owner.
c.
A maintained yard conveys a negative externality because it makes other property owners in the neighborhood feel like their homes are less valuable.
d.
A maintained yard conveys a positive externality because it increases the value of adjacent properties in the neighborhood.
 

73. 

A binding price floor in a market sets price
a.
above equilibrium price and causes a shortage.
b.
above equilibrium price and causes a surplus.
c.
below equilibrium price and causes a surplus.
d.
below equilibrium price and causes a shortage.
 

74. 

Determining the appropriate level of government support for expanding general knowledge
a.
is determined by demand and supply.
b.
is accurately determined by Congress.
c.
can be easily measured by determining the amount where benefits equal cost.
d.
is difficult since benefits are hard to measure.
 

75. 

The marginal cost curve crosses the average total cost curve at
a.
the efficient scale.
b.
the minimum point on the average total cost curve.
c.
a point where the marginal cost curve is rising.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

76. 

Which of the following would unambiguously cause a decrease in the equilibrium price of cotton shirts?
a.
an increase in the price of wool shirts and a decrease in the price of raw cotton
b.
a decrease in the price of wool shirts and a decrease in the price of raw cotton
c.
an increase in the price of wool shirts and an increase in the price of raw cotton
d.
a decrease in the price of wool shirts and an increase in the price of raw cotton
 

77. 

To begin, a competitive firm is selling its output for $20 per unit and it is maximizing its profit, which is positive. Now, the price rises to $25 and the firm makes whatever adjustments are necessary to maximize its profit at the now-higher price. Once the firm has adjusted, which of the following statements is correct?
a.
The firm's quantity of output is higher than it was previously.
b.
The firm's average total cost is higher than it was previously.
c.
The firm's average revenue is higher than it was previously.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

78. 

If a country allows trade and the domestic price of a good is lower than the world price,
a.
the country will become an exporter of the good.
b.
the country will become an importer of the good.
c.
the country will neither export nor import the good.
d.
additional information about demand is needed to determine whether the country will export or import the good.
 

79. 

Under rent control, bribery is a mechanism to
a.
bring the total price of an apartment (including the bribe) closer to the equilibrium price.
b.
allocate housing to the poorest individuals in the market.
c.
force the total price of an apartment (including the bribe) to be less than the market price.
d.
allocate housing to the most deserving tenants.
 

80. 

If a competitive firm is (i) selling 1,000 units of its product at a price of $9 per unit and (ii) earning a positive profit, then
a.
its total cost is less than $9,000.
b.
its marginal revenue is less than $9.
c.
its average revenue is greater than $9.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

81. 

The market does not provide national defense because
a.
it is impossible to prevent any single person from enjoying the benefit of national defense.
b.
the fixed cost of national defense is too high.
c.
the necessary resources for national defense are not available in the private sector.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

82. 

Buyers of a product will pay the majority of a tax placed on a product when
a.
the tax is placed on the seller of the product.
b.
the demand is more elastic than supply.
c.
supply is more elastic than demand.
d.
the tax is placed on the buyer of the product.
 

83. 

An externality is the impact of
a.
society's decisions on the well-being of society.
b.
a person's actions on that person's well-being.
c.
one person's actions on the well-being of a bystander.
d.
society's decisions on the well-being of one person in the society.
 

84. 

The amount of deadweight loss associated with the tax is equal to
a.
P3 A C P1.
b.
A B C.
c.
P2 A D P3.
d.
P1 D C P2.
 

85. 

The particular price that results in quantity supplied being equal to quantity demanded is the best price because it
a.
maximizes costs of the seller.
b.
maximizes the profit of buyers.
c.
maximizes the total welfare of buyers and sellers.
d.
minimizes the expenditure of buyers.
 
 
Figure 10-4
201_final_files/i0930000.jpg
 

86. 

Refer to Figure 10-4. The optimum amount of this product from society's standpoint would be at
a.
Q1.
b.
Q2.
c.
Q3.
d.
Q4.
 

87. 

If goods A and B are complements, an increase in the price of A will result in
a.
more of good A sold.
b.
more of good B sold.
c.
less of good B sold.
d.
no difference in the quantity sold of either good.
 

88. 

Cross-price elasticity of demand is calculated as the
a.
percentage change in quantity demanded of good 1 divided by the percentage change in the price of good 2.
b.
total percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the total percentage change in price.
c.
percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income.
d.
percentage change in the price of good 1 divided by the percentage change in the price of good 2.
 

89. 

When a country allows trade and becomes an exporter of a good,
a.
everyone in the country benefits.
b.
everyone in the country loses.
c.
the gains of the winners exceed the losses of the losers.
d.
the losses of the losers exceed the gains of the winners.
 

90. 

When an industry is a natural monopoly,
a.
it is characterized by constant returns to scale.
b.
it is characterized by diseconomies of scale.
c.
a larger number of firms may lead to a lower average cost.
d.
a larger number of firms will lead to a higher average cost.
 

91. 

Producer surplus is the
a.
area under the supply curve to the left of the amount sold.
b.
amount a seller is paid less the cost of production.
c.
amount represented by the area under the supply curve.
d.
cost to sellers of participating in a market.
 

92. 

When an economy is operating inside its production possibilities frontier we know that
a.
there are unused resources or inefficiencies in the economy.
b.
the economy is operating with efficiency.
c.
moving to a point on its production possibilities frontier would be economic growth.
d.
to produced more of one good, the economy would have to give up some of the other good.
 

93. 

You lose your job and as a result you buy fewer mystery books. This shows that you consider mystery books to be a/an
a.
normal good.
b.
inferior good.
c.
luxury good.
d.
complementary good.
 

94. 

When firms are said to be price takers, it implies that if a firm raises its price,
a.
buyers will go elsewhere.
b.
buyers will pay the higher price in the short run.
c.
competitors will also raise their prices.
d.
firms in the industry will exercise market power.
 

95. 

During the last few decades in the United States, health officials have argued that eating too much beef might be harmful to human health. As a result, there has been a significant decrease in the amount of beef produced. Which of the following best explains the decrease in production?
a.
Beef producers, concerned about the health of their customers, decided to produce relatively less beef.
b.
Government officials, concerned about consumer health, ordered beef producers to produce relatively less beef.
c.
Individual consumers, concerned about their own health, decreased their demand for beef, which lowered the relative price of beef, making it less attractive to produce.
d.
Anti-beef protesters have made it difficult for both buyers and sellers of beef to meet in the marketplace.
 

96. 

Authors are allowed to be monopolists in the sale of their books in order to
a.
encourage authors to write more and better books.
b.
correct for the negative externalities that the internet and television impose.
c.
satisfy literary advocacy groups that exercise their lobbying power.
d.
promote a society in which people think for themselves and learn from whichever books they please.
 

97. 

Suppose that a steel factory emits a certain amount of air pollution, which constitutes a negative externality. The social cost of producing the steel includes the
a.
private costs of the steel producers and the price consumers pay for the steel.
b.
private costs of the steel producers and the costs to the bystanders affected by the pollution.
c.
costs to the bystanders effected by the pollution only.
d.
price consumers pay for the steel.
 

98. 

What is the monopolist's profit under the following conditions? The profit-maximizing price charged for goods produced is $16. The intersection of the marginal revenue and marginal cost curves occurs where output is 10 units and marginal cost is $8. Average total cost for 10 units of output is $6.
a.
$20
b.
$80
c.
$100
d.
$160
 

99. 

Suppose Jan is starting up a small lemonade stand business. Variable costs for Jan's lemonade stand would include the cost of
a.
building the lemonade stand.
b.
hiring an artist to design a logo for her sign.
c.
lemonade mix.
d.
All of the above are correct.
 

100. 

Suppose that someone makes the argument that because empty alcohol containers are found at many accidents, the containers cause accidents. This would be an example of
a.
sound logic.
b.
reverse causality.
c.
omitted variables.
d.
slope.
 



 
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