Study Guide Worksheet #1.   Introduction into Anatomical Kinesiology, Bone, and Joints.
Questions presented below are intended to help you prepare for examination one.

Answers to the questions can be found in Chapters one, two, and three (Dynatomy by Whiting and Rugg), and in your lecture notes.  Chapter one provides information about general concepts which will surface throughout your study of anatomical kinesiology.  Questions dealing with general anatomical and physiological concepts are presented below in part one.  Chapter two and three of Whiting and Rugg's text focuses on bone and joints, respectively.

Chapter one of Thompson and Floyd's text (Manual of Structural Kinesiology) will also be helpful as you answer questions under general anatomy and physiology, bone and joints below.

 Part I. General questions about anatomy and physiology

1. Define the following:  kinesiology, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor learning, motor development, and exercise physiology. Why is it important for students in Physical Education, Health Education, Exercise Science and related areas to understand the fundamentals of anatomical kinesiology?
2.  Describe the scientific process as applied to understanding human movement.
3. Define the following : Homeostasis, negative and positive feedback control (provide examples of each).   Recognize that there are many subdivisions of anatomy and physiology. Name  several subdivisions of  anatomy and physiology.
4. What are distinguishing features of a living organism? State and define each feature. Provide examples of each feature.
5.  Define the following: proximal, distal, medial, superior, inferior, superficial, deep, anterior, posterior, ventral, dorsal.
6. Name the two major body cavities and their subdivisions.  Identify organs found in each of the latter cavities.

7. Use another anatomical term for the common terms listed below:
Head    ___________
Armpit ___________
Wrist    ___________
Pubic    ___________
Breastone area   ___________
Foot     ___________

8. Starting with the smallest unit, outline and describe the structural organization of the human body.
9.  Name the different organ systems of the human body.
10.  Name and define the body planes and axes.   Identify specific movements (movements at the main joints) associated with each of the planes and axes.

Part II. Bone and Joints

Bone.  Review Whiting and Rugg's text (Dynatomy) chapter on the skeleton and lecture notes to help answer the following questions.
1. List functions of the skeletal system.
2. List and provide examples of the different types of bone (i.e., long bones, short bones; what are the differences among the different types of bones?.).
3.  List and provide the function of each type of bone cell.
4.  Draw out a schematic of a typical long bone and identify key anatomical features.
5.  What is the difference between compact and spongy bone?
6.  What is the difference between red and yellow bone marrow? Where (in bone) do you find such tissue?
7.  What is an Osteon?
8. Distinguish between longitudinal and appositional bone growth.
9.  Draw and identify the components of a load deformation curve for a bone.
9.  Identify bone fractures and how the human body is able to heal a fracture (see handout on Bone Fractures and Healing, previous web page)
10.  Why are greenstick fractures more common in children?
11. What role does testosterone and estrogen play as related to bone growth?
12.  Why is calcium so important for the human body?,..  and, What role does bone play in helping to maintain blood calcium homeostasis?
13. Describe how a fracture site heals (naturally).  List clinical advances employed in the healing of a fracture.
14. Define osteopenia and osteoporosis.
15. Describe the effects of exercise, diet and  aging on the skeleton
16. Describe the differences among the following spinal deformities: scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis

1. Describe structural and functional classification of joints.
2. Draw the general anatomy of a synovial joint
3. Name the different types of synovial joints. 
4. Describe the difference among the following joints related disorders: arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, osteomalacia, rickets, tendinitis, bursitis.
5. In general, describe how the joint related disorders (in question 4 above) impact human locomotion.
6. Distinquish among the following joint movements:  flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, inward and outward rotation, eversion, inversion, supination, pronation, protraction, retraction, opposition, lateral flexion