CWUNewsNewshttp://www.cwu.edu/sports-nutrition/newsen-usStrenuous Activity and Nutritionhttp://www.cwu.edu/sports-nutrition/node/2468Tue, 28 Aug 2012 12:13:13<div class="center"><h3 class="priHeader">Effects of Strenuous Physical Activity on the athlete's body: How nutrition can help</h3><h3 class="subHeader">Derived from: <a href="http://www.umass.edu" target="_blank">www.umass.edu</a> "Hot Topics in Sports Nutrition"</h3></div><p>For student-athletes, the day-to-day practices and competitions are rigorous enough; however, back to back competitions (i.e. double-headers, tournament play, track invitationals, etc.) bring additional stress to the student athlete's body. So, what does a student-athlete do with back-to-back competitive events in one day or on consecutive days? There are several considerations.</p><h3 class="subHeader">Hydration:</h3><div class="indent"><p>Providing plenty of water throughout the entire day of competition is always imperative. More importantly, providing sports drinks for student-athletes will not only hydrate the student-athletes, but also provide glucose (quick energy). This will help to "spare" the muscle glycogen that is stored; hence, the student-athlete will have more energy and feel less tired with each event. The student-athlete's performance will be impaired if they are not well-hydrated.</p></div><h3 class="subHeader">Glycogen Stores:</h3><div class="indent"><p>Glycogen stores will become depleted if the student-athlete does not replace them. After the competition is completed, the student-athlete would take in about 7 grams of carbohydrate for every pound of body weight. This helps to speed glycogen restoration in the liver and muscles so they will not be tired during the next event. As stated above, sports drinks are a good, quick, easy way to replace glycogen stores.</p><p>For events scheduled within several hours of each other, a student-athlete will need to experiment with the amount and type of foods and beverages to consume between events. A small meal of about 300 calories, which has high carbohydrates and some protein, is usually well-tolerated by most individuals competing in back-to-back events. For instance, dry cereal and a carton of skim milk, a fruit-flavored yogurt, some fig bars or graham crackers with chocolate milk, a can of boost, two packets of Carnation Instant Breakfast mixed with water, or a sports bar may work for your student-athletes. These should be consumed with a sports drink and/or water.</p><p>For events on consecutive days, post-event rehydration and glycogen replacement are important beginning within the first fifteen minutes after the event. Water is the best post-event rehydration fluid and carbohydrate can be replaced with fruit juice, fruit, and/or carbohydrate loading drinks like Ultra Fuel or Gatorlode. Carbohydrate should continue to be a high priority for the next two hours, but student-athletes should not neglect the protein and fats. A meal consisting of pasta, Italian bread and broiled chicken, or thick-crusted pizza with lemonade are a couple of possibilities.</p></div><h3 class="subHeader">Appetite:</h3><div class="indent"><p>Some student-athletes can tolerate more food closer to an event than others. Experimenting with what student-athletes can tolerate during practice times rather than at the time of a competition is important to prevent any gastrointestinal upset the day of the big event.</p></div><h3 class="subHeader">Psychology:</h3><div class="indent"><p>Many student-athletes have "rituals" which they perform prior to every competition. These "rituals" may include some food practices. Be sure that these "rituals" are not harmful to the student-athletes or their performance. If you have any questions or concerns about any of your student-athletes "food rituals", please refer them to a Sports Nutritionist.</p></div><h3 class="subHeader">Summary:</h3><div class="indent"><p>Student-athletes who compete in back-to-back events have a more difficult challenge to rehydrate and refuel themselves. It is important that fluids are constantly available, including sports drinks. Additionally, it is important that the student-athlete consume some more substantial foods (in solid or liquid form) before they compete. This helps to speed glycogen restoration in the liver and muscles. Remember: hydration, replenishing glycogen stores, appetite, and psychology are all important considerations. Taking them all into consideration can help the student-athlete's performance tremendously.</p></div><h3 class="subHeader">A Final Note:</h3><div class="indent"><p>High fat, empty-calorie foods and beverages like candy bars, pastries, carbonated beverages, etc. immediately after an event may not supply the proper amounts of carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fluids to enhance recovery. In addition, alcohol slows down the recovery process and may increase the risk of injury or fatigue.</p></div><p>&nbsp;</p>The Female Athlete Triadhttp://www.cwu.edu/sports-nutrition/node/2467Tue, 28 Aug 2012 12:12:18<h3>By: Laura Hennig</h3><p>For many female competitive athletes, success may be directly related to their weight. Athletes in these sports all have one thing in common - they are at higher risk to develop disordered eating, the first of three "stages" of the female athlete triad. Discussed are characteristics of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, along with what to do if you suspect someone may be falling into this devastating cycle.</p><p><strong>Disordered eating:</strong> The spectrum of disordered eating may begin with restricting food and calories lightly, but may quickly develop into occasional bingeing and purging. Finally, if these events become an important part of an athletes life, anorexia (severe calorie restriction, excessive exercise, rapid weight loss) and bulimia (binge and purge) may occur. Disordered eating is as high as 62% in some sports. Behaviors that go along with disordered eating include the following:</p><ul><li>preoccupation with food, calories and weight</li><li>high criticism of her body</li><li>wide fluctuations in weight over a short period</li><li>unwillingness to eat in front of others</li><li>baggy or layered clothing</li></ul><p>A combination of voluntary starvation with a strict exercise regimen leads to behavior changes which can also lead to disordered eating. Also, stress from a job, school, friends, boyfriends, or family may play a role in the development. A common route is to first cut out sweets and fruit. But eventually, more and more food will become off-limits which may lead to either bingeing or starvation. In the case of bingeing and purging (through vomiting ,or laxatives) the individual may experience chest or throat pain, fatigue, abdominal pain, and constipation or diarrhea. Symptoms of starvation include intolerance to the cold, bloating, fatigue, constipation, lightheadedness, and a lack of concentration.</p><p><strong>Amenorrhea:</strong> Nutritional deficiencies can be one of several stressors that can disturb the athletes hormonal imbalance. One result is amenorrhea - lack of a menstrual cycle for at least three months - which could be due to severe calorie restriction. To handle this problem, decreasing exercise intensity and increasing calorie intake is the key. Also, supplementing calcium and estrogen to prevent bone loss is very important. However, it may take several months to reestablish the cycle.</p><p><strong>Osteoporosis:</strong> The last and most severe stage of the female athlete triad is osteoporosis. Premature bone loss relates to the incidence of bone stress and fracture. For young women athletes who partake in either disordered eating or have amennorhea, they may never reach the full potential for bone density. This can be devastating for the later years when building bone mass can no longer take place.</p><p><strong>Prevention and treatment:</strong> The first step to prevent the triad from happening is to eliminate the notion that we can change our physical structure to resemble the body image of an extremely thin or small athlete. Also early education for parents and athletes regarding appropriate exercise and eating habits is necessary. Treatment involves increasing calorie consumption, decrease training, and taking Calcium supplements.</p><p><strong>Approach:</strong> It is difficult to approach an athlete who is suspected of having an eating disorder, and careful steps must be taken. You must make sure you treat the athlete as a person, and not just a body. Here are some recommendations.</p><ul><li><strong>Who:</strong> Typically, the individual who has the best rapport and the closest relationship with the athlete. In most cases, a teammate should not be the one to approach the athlete. The athlete typically will deny the existence of a problem or at least its seriousness. The person approaching the athlete should be prepared to get a negative response.</li><li><strong>When:</strong> As soon as an individual close to the athlete identifies a potential problem based on the presence of a number of identifying characteristics, not just one.</li><li><strong>How:</strong> The best strategy is to express concern for the individual gently but persistently, saying that you're worried about their health (unhappiness, depression, etc.). Ask how he or she feels, both physically and psychologically, and ask if they want to talk about it. Do not be confrontational. They need to know that people care about them. Don't discuss weight or eating habits; the issue and focus is their well-being.</li></ul><p>One of the most detrimental errors a person can make in working to get a bulimic individual into treatment is following or watching her in an effort to catch her in the act of bingeing and purging. However, this only puts more pressure on that individual to seek greater secrecy. The process must be characterized by maximal sensitivity and minimal invasiveness. Remember, the athlete is being approached, not accused.</p><p>This is a very serious problem that most people cannot deal with on their own. They will need help from both family and a support group to get through this. The best treatment is a multidisciplinary team approach: with a physician who monitors her medical status and ability to participate safely in sports, a nutritionist who provides appropriate nutritional guidance, and a mental health professional who addresses any psychological issues. A key to prevention is to recognize the signs early talk with the person about getting help. If you or someone you know has an eating disorder, please contact the Sports Nutrition Center at 963-2094, and we can refer you to a dietitian for counseling. Please feel free to call anytime.</p><h2 class="subHeader">Resources:</h2><ol><li>ACSM's Hot Topics and Fundamentals of Sports Medicine Series: A Physician's Guide</li></ol>Proteinhttp://www.cwu.edu/sports-nutrition/node/2466Tue, 28 Aug 2012 12:01:10<div class="center"><h3 class="priHeader" style="text-align: center;">Just how much does an athlete need?</h3><h3 class="subHeader">By Danelle Swearingen</h3></div><p>Though protein is indeed necessary for the building and maintenance of muscle tissue, there is a limit to how much the body can use for this purpose. Extra amounts of protein are simply excreted by the body, are used very inefficiently for energy (replacing much more efficient carbohydrate energy in a high protein/low carbohydrate diet), or can be stored as fat. Diets very high in protein and low in carbohydrates also cause the buildup of ketones in the body, which can produce ketoacidosis, an acidic state that changes the pH of the body and affects normal bodily function.</p><p>According to the American Dietetic Association (ADA), the amount of protein required by an athlete is only slightly higher than that of the average individual. The fact is, most Americans, including athletes, eat far more protein than they really need (assuming they are eating enough total calories). The protein recommended for the average person is 0.8 g/kg body weight (to convert pounds to kg, divide the # of pounds by 2.2). The ADA recommends that endurance athletes consume 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg and that strength-training athletes consume 1.6 to 1.7 g/kg. Even if an athlete consumed only 10% of their total calories from protein (most people eat about 12-15%), they would still be consuming more protein than necessary. There has also been evidence to suggest that long-term high protein intake causes kidney problems and could be linked to osteoporosis.</p><p>Many athletes consume protein supplements, and many of these available on the market contain whey protein. This is the protein component of supplements such as Myoplex. Whey protein is actually a type of protein found in dairy products such as milk - in supplement form it is simply separated and concentrated. It can still cause allergic reactions and intolerance problems in certain people just like dairy products do. There is no evidence that whey protein improves athletic performance. Even athletes who do not consume dairy products are able to get the same amino acids from other food sources, making whey protein unnecessary. Other types of protein in food are also more concentrated and complete (containing the essential amino acids in proper amounts) than whey protein, although they should not be consumed in extreme quantities either.</p><p>The bottom line is, whey protein or otherwise, athletes just don't need as much protein as they seem to think!</p><h3 class="subHeader">Resources:</h3><ol><li>Nutrition and athletic performance -- Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine. <em>J Am Diet Assoc.</em> 2000;100:1543-1556.</li><li><a href="http://www.gnc.com" target="_blank">www.gnc.com</a> - whey protein</li></ol>Eating on the Runhttp://www.cwu.edu/sports-nutrition/node/2465Tue, 28 Aug 2012 11:47:10<h3 class="subHeader" style="text-align: center;">By Christina Thompson, Sports Nutrition Educator</h3><p>Are you an athlete looking to gain that competitive edge? Well being fit doesn't just mean feeling strong and working out hard, it also means how you fuel your body to be your ultimate best. With everyone having such hectic schedules, it is no wonder everyone is looking for foods they can eat on the go, but when you are an athlete looking to compete, getting the right nutrition is essential!</p><p>To have the extra strength and endurance, every athlete must know that refraining from tobacco and alcohol are necessities to ensure your concentration and ability to compete. But what you may not know are simple things you can do to enhance your performance out on the playing field.</p><p>Adequate nutrition requires planning. So taking small snacks and meals with you is a definite plus right before a competition. Carry nutritious snacks or meals with you. Try the following ideas:</p><ul><li>Cut-up veggies in sealable plastic bags</li><li>Crackers with peanut butter</li><li>Dried or fresh fruit</li><li>Bagel with cream cheese</li><li>Small PB and J sandwich</li></ul><p>Be careful though, you don't want to load yourself down with heavy meals, especially meals that are high in fat. Plus, sometimes you just don't have enough time to prepare snacks and meals before a competition and the bus just happens to stop at a fast food restaurant, then what can you do? Right?!</p><p>Well, no matter where you go, there is always something nutritious, you just have to know what to look for. Many times, fast food restaurants have a nutrition facts sheet. Ask for it. Often times, what may sound healthy, really isn't. Read the nutrition labels if they are available and try to choose foods that are &lt; 30% fat. That way you won't weigh your stomach down when you're out competing. Here are some other important tips that can help you make better choices eating on the road:</p><p><strong>Avoid foods that are buttered or fried.</strong> A large French frie from McDonalds has 610 Calories and 41g of fat. Try a baked potato with light sour cream and use salsa instead.</p><p><strong>Look for foods that have the words grilled, broiled, or steamed</strong> in the names of the item. Look for stir-fried foods, broiled chicken breasts, or grilled fish fillets.</p><p><strong>Order the regular sizes instead of the larger sizes,</strong> this includes sodas or pops as well. Large sizes contain many more Calories and fat which may impair your performance out on the field. Large sodas or pops also contain many extra, unwanted Calories, sugar and not to mention, they can dehydrate you.</p><p><strong>Go LIGHT on the condiments.</strong> Ask for foods without the mayo or the cheese. Use light or fat-free dressings and light sour cream. Salsas, relish, ketchup, mustards, and herbs are all much healthier alternatives.</p><p><strong>LOAD UP ON THE VEGGIES!</strong> Veggies are full of essential nutrients and vitamins that can enhance your game. Load them up on your salads and sandwiches.</p><p><strong>DRINK PLENTY OF WATER!</strong> We all know water is important, but it is especially important for athletes. Dehydration can slow you down, and since you lose most of your water through sweat, make sure you drink plenty before and after your competition.</p><p>Hey, after a competition and you're feeling thirsty, you're already dehydrated! Just remember that for every pound of weight lost after competition equals 2 cups of water, which means you should drink enough water to <em>at least</em> replenish yourself!!</p><p>Remember, eating on the road doesn't have to be difficult, you just have to know what to look for. So try to prepare ahead and if you can't, remember: <em>You CAN find nutritious foods wherever you go!</em></p>