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History

Marilyn Levine

 

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Current Research

  

The Chinese Biographical Database (CBD) Project

Current research includes two projects. The first involves both quantitative and qualitative research and analysis working with the Chinese Biographical Database (CBD), which  includes  2,238 biographies (2,084 males and 154 females), and over 1,600 variables with basic biographical data, career, affiliations, education, positions, youth, historical events and family, and is GIS configured. As a couple of examples, there are 515 birth cities, 47 career categories, and 50 affiliation groupings. There also are over 2,600 alternate names and  5,127 citations.

The Chinese Conversations Project

The second area of my current research is the Chinese Conversations Project which is a series of transcriptions in Chinese for digitized audio files that cover three tiers of interviews and discussion that were conducted in 1985 and 1990. The first two tiers are with participants in the European Communist Organizations (ECCO) in France, Germany, and Belgium and their relatives, and the second tier from CCP historians are now transcribed and revised. The third tier of converations with Tsinghua historians has not been transcribed. These transcriptions cover over 36 hours of interviews, with 46 transcription files and contain over 308,000 characters.  Below are excerpts from three of the Participant interviews with audio files and an extensive introductory document that introduces this historical research.

In addition, access to searchable database notes from the French archives, and  information on other resources can be found on the Archival Research tab of this Web site.

Zhao Shiyan (1901-1927), first Secretary of the European Branch of the Chinese Communist Party. A historical introduction


 

Some Chinese Voices from the Past

 
Sheng Cheng -- 盛成  (1899-1996) who was one of three Asian founders of the French Communist Party. Sheng published a significant French memoir in 1930 and led a life of danger as an underground Comintern agent for over forty years, later returning to Beijing, where he received the Légion d' Honneur awarded by French President Mitterand.
Photos: Sheng, Liu (his wife), myself and scenes from Sheng Cheng’s study.

 

Excerpt from first interview of seven audio files conducted on October 12, 1985:
【刘桂生教授也参加】

林【林如莲,M. Levine】: 。 。 。刘老师告诉我您在法国,在那个Congress de Tours见过,我非常的高兴因为可能您认识胡志明。

盛 【盛成】:恩,我可以把这个胡志明的这个经过,因为我在法国的时候,我们在1927年,1927年的八月,那时候Romain Rolland(罗曼.罗兰),他召集这个会。他召集这个会议啊,他是在这个瑞士Switzerland。在瑞士 格兰[Gland] 啊就在这个Lausanne(洛桑)附近,。 。 。。我们差不多两个礼拜,从八月十六号一直到八月这个三十号。这个时期,当时是这个,用这个Associaté des Droits des L’hommes et des citoyens des femmes.

林:喔喔。

盛:他这个名义,来召集这个会。这个会在当时啊是讨论殖民地的问题。

林:哦,殖民地的问题。

盛:恩,所以他当时有很多人。这个,这个里头有,这个有Nehru,那时候Madame Gandhi才十岁[Indira Gandhi]。

盛:。 。 。他(Nehru)把他(Madame Gandhi)带了去{可能是这样的情况}。那时候Nehru,他的wife,这个我们现在说爱人,那时候还有病,在瑞士养病。。 。 。那当时这个会,就Nehru参加的。那么,还有这个印尼的后来的副总统,Sukarno的Vice President。 。。。 Hatta来参加了。这个,同时,当时,就是荷兰的,就是Dutch,当时几个了communist party,这个当时他是书记,Madame Roland-Holst, Henriette Roland-Holst同Hatta一齐来参加这个会。。 。 。还有Schweitzer,Dr. Schweitzer。

 

 

 

Audio Excerpt:

Voice of Sheng Cheng

 

 

 


Yang Kun 杨堃, (1901-1998), an activist during the 1920s who joined the Chinese Nationalist Party and the European Branch of the Chinese Communist Party in Lyon. In 1927 Yang left politics to obtain his French doctorate at the University of Lyon. He returned to China as an academic becoming a major founder of Chinese sociology and ethnic minority studies.

Photos: Professor Liu Guisheng and Dr. Yang, myself and Dr. Yang, and below Dr. Yang’s son, Yang Zaidao (on right).

 

 

Excerpt from first interview of five audio files conducted on October 14, 1985:

杨 【杨堃】: 我到法国是1921年,21年这个法国退还庚子赔款嘛,它不是完全用在这个项目上。它这个赔款的数目相当大,作为它恢复中华事业嘛。可是用那个利息,还成立了一个中华文化教育基金委员会,办了两个中华大学,在北平办了一个中华大学,在法国里昂办了一个中华大学。这个呢它招生,考上他的学校吧,他管一去一回来的旅费、在那的学费、吃饭费、医用他全管,可是条件呢,也就是勤工俭学的样子,比较生活很艰苦。这个,比如我们去和来的旅费,就是坐四等舱,一般官费什么全是头等舱,或者二等舱,最低是三等舱。我们是四等舱。四等舱根本,根本只有三等舱没有四等舱,那就是货舱。

林【林如莲,M. Levine】: 哈哈哈。

杨: 我们就是坐四等舱去。我们的校长,中华大学的校长,吴稚晖。吴稚晖是一个老无政府党员,无政府主义的,是国民党的一个右派。他是坚决反对共产党,他是我们的校长。可是,这个人,我对他也是很佩服的,他也坐四等舱.

林: 他也坐四等舱?就是1921年夏天.

杨: 1921年八月,我们坐着四等舱,吴稚晖啊他是校长,校长他应该坐头等舱,他也坐四等舱.

林: 喔,他的年纪比较大。

杨: 他当时60多岁了。这个人是很了不起。你说无政府党员他,他是右派精神。吴稚晖,也是很有名的一个学者啊,他写了很多著作。他还每天早晨起来打扫我们四等舱,人很多啊,100多人,他搞清洁卫生,还是很艰苦的。

 

 

Audio Excerpt:

Yang Kun

 

 


Zheng Chaolin (1900-1998), was an early theorist in the Communist Party, an editor of Buweiersike [The Bolshevik], and as a Trotskyist followed Chinese Communist Party co-founder, Chen Dixiu, into political exile. Zheng was imprisoned by both the Chinese Nationalist Party and the post-1949 Chinese government for a total of 34 years. At great personal risk, under house arrest since 1979, Zheng Chaolin published numerous memoirs of the 1920s during the 1980s and 1990s.

Photos: Zheng Chaolin outside his apartment, inside with Dr. Levine (1985) and at a restaurant with Zhu Yuhe and myself (1990).

 

Excerpt from first interview of four audio files conducted on October 29, 1985:

林 【林如莲,M. Levine】: 所以开始的时候没有,就像李璜的回忆录说,你们开始的时候是被第三国际控制的。有关系会怎么样?是谁先有关系?

郑: 张伯简.

朱 【朱育和,教授】: 张伯简!

郑 【郑超麟】: 。 。。张伯简在德国,他在德国认识一个第三国际的工作人员。这个人是个犹太人。

林: 犹太人?

郑: 犹太人,我不记得他的名字,他的头发是红颜色的,那么他是第三国际的工作人员。张伯简是,我不晓得,后来通过他的关系,他就到了德国。……后来我们去了莫斯科,后来相反的话,,这个犹太人我不记得他的名字,他是张伯简的.

林: 所以然后他们从法国到德国到墨西哥就是这个人帮忙,然后和周恩来开始联系。因为周恩来、张申府、刘清扬都在德国。熊锐和熊雄呢?他们也有关系吗?

郑: 熊锐和熊雄都是参加了德国共产党。

林:所以然后他们从法国到德国到莫斯科就是这个人帮忙,然后和周恩来开始联系。因为周恩来、张申府、刘清扬都在德国。熊锐和熊雄呢?他们也有关系吗?
郑:熊锐和熊雄都是参加了德国共产党。

林:德国的共产党?哦,熊雄和熊锐也有德国的共产党。可是江泽民或者聂荣臻有没有?

朱:他们在比利时。

林:哦,对。

郑:他们那个熊雄、张伯简都是参加德国共产党,按照国际章程,他们也是中国共产党党员。最后不得不同意他们参加中国共产党的组织。

 

 

 

Audio Excerpt:

Voice of Zheng Chaolin

 

 

 

 

Chinese Conversations Project - Introductory Materials Link
 

Introductory materials includes excerpts from:
The Guomindang in Europe: A Sourcebook of Documents by Marilyn Levine and Chen San-ching. (Berkeley: University of Calif. Institute of East Asian Studies, 2000)
The Found Generation: Chinese Communists in Europe During the Twenties by Marilyn Levine (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1993)

Includes:
Abbreviations
A historical introduction
Introduction to nine archives in Europe and Asia
Comparative chronology
Brief group and biographical summaries
A biographical glossary of over 1,100 names
A selected bibliography

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