The following are abstractsof theses first published in Friends of Washoe Newsletters. To order the newsletter with the test of the entire theses, please contant CHCI to order back issues from our online store.
Fall 2010 - Robin Potosky
USE OF MODULATION IN RESPONSE TO REQUESTS FOR CLARIFICATION IN CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Fall 2010, Volume 32, No 1
Note: this article is a preprint, based on Robin Potosky's thesis, of data that is currently in press. Please do not quote without permission from the author.
As infant chimpanzees, Washoe, Moja, Tatu, and Dar were cross-fostered by humans and acquired signs of American Sign Language in that environment. Human signers alter the meaning of signs by establishing loci, facial expression, eye gaze, direction, size, speed, holding signs, duplicating signs, and reiterating signs. As youngsters the chimpanzees modulate their signs in similarways. Videotapes interactions of the adult chimapanzees show they use different types of modulation with sisngs they repeated between pairs of consecutive utterances in conversations. This study extended previous research and examined modulation in other categories of utterances: expanded, subtracted, modified, and novel. The chimapanzees used a variety of directional and quantitative modulation in their responses to a series of general questions. They used both single and combinatorial use of modulation on their signs. There were also individual differences in the way they used modulation in their responses.
Spring 2010 - Gina Bianca Stadtner
THE EFFECT OF RECIPRICOL CHIMPANZEE (Pan troglodytes) BEHAVIOR BY CAREGIVERS
Friends of Washoe, Spring 2010, Volume 31, No 3
Note: this article is a reprint, based on Gina Bianca Stadtner's thesis, of data that is currently in press. Please do not quote without permission the author.
This study examined caregivers’ incorporation of species-specific behaviors in their interactions with captive chimpanzees. The author hypothesized that affinitive behaviors, including grooming and play, would increase if caregivers employed species-specific behaviors, such as head nodding and offering a bent wrist. Additionally, it was predicted that incorporating chimpanzee-specific conduct would decrease aggression and promote positive relationships between species. The current study replicated Jensvold’s (2008) research, using 2 conditions: human behavior (HB) and chimpanzee behavior (CB). While the chimpanzees responded with individual patterns to the conditions, they all engaged in more interactive and playful behaviors during CB than HB. The two analyses, context and sequential, showed differences in the ways the chimpanzees responded to HB and CB. There were individual differences in patterns of response, although several trends in the data indicate higher rates of affiliation in CB than HB.
Winter 2010 - Jacquelyn Christine Buckner
THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF THE USE OF CHIMPANZEE-SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS AND VOCALIZATIONS BY HUAMN CAREGIVERS
Friends of Washoe, Winter 2010, Volume 31, No. 2
Note: this article is a preprint, based on Jacquelyn Christine Buckner’s thesis, of data that is currently in press. Please do not quote without permission from the author.
The effect of the caregiver’s use of chimpanzee-specific behaviors and vocalizations is an area not widely studied. However, friendly relationships have many positive effects, such as improved health and a better quality of life. In this study, when the caregiver used chimpanzee-specific behaviors and vocalizations, such as food grunting or chimpanzee laughter, with the chimpanzees, the chimpanzees were more interactive and engaged in more friendly behaviors, such as playing, grooming, and other affinitive behaviors, as compared to when the caregiver only used human behaviors. The results of this study indicate that the caregiver’s use of chimpanzee-specific behaviors and vocalizations resulted in more positive interactions, which ultimately improves the chimpanzees’ psychological well-being.
Spring 2008 - Jessica Belle Martinson
SORTING CHIMPANZEE DRAWINGS BASED ON SIMILIARITY OF FORM
Friends of Washoe, Spring 2008, Volume 29, No. 3
Abstract: This study examined humans' perception of similarity of form in chimpanzee drawings. Moja, a cross-fostered chimpanzee, drew 36 drawings of seven familiar objects. Experimenters selected seven exemplars and instruced 77 human participants to sort the remaining 28 drawings into a stack based on its similarity of of form to the exemplar. A multidimensional scaling analysis showed that participants perceived similarity of form in three of the seven objects drew, including cup, boot and banana.
Winter 2008 – Trijntje Laurel Marburg
A COMPARISON OF INTRAGROUP GREETING AND REASSURANCE BEHAVIORS ACROSS FOUR CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) SOCIAL GROUPS IN AMERICAN AND AFRICAN SANCTUARIES
Friends of Washoe,Winter 2008, Vol. 29 No. 2
Abstract: In this study, gestures performed in the greeting and reassurance context were investigated in four groups of chimpanzees living in American and African sanctuaries. Over 85 hours of video recording at three African sanctuaries and 798 hours of video recording at an American sanctuary were analyzed for greeting and reassurance gestures. The four chimpanzee groups demonstrated various differences in both greeting and reassurance gestures. Groups differed in the proportion of time spent in each context, the gesture frequency per minute, and the gesture types used. Some gestures were group specific, meaning they occurred only in one group; some gestures were group typical, meaning they occurred in some but not all groups; and some gestures occurred in all groups and are candidates for chimpanzee universals. Within gestures found in all groups, systematic variations in placement were investigated. Gestures differed in placement locations of gestures, similar to those found in human cultures.
Fall 2007 – Jason M. Wallin
PLAY, LAUGHTER, AND HUMOR IN CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES)
Friends of Washoe, Fall 2007, Vol. 29 No. 1
Abstract: Play is ubiquitous in mammals, and argued to occur across many taxa including birds, non-avian reptiles, and invertebrates. Laughter is common in human interactions, and growing evidence from chimpanzees, rats, and dogs may mean it is also common among mammals (at least). Humor in non-humans is less well studied, though theoretical work and anecdotes exist. This study examined play, laughter, and humor using a longitudinal dataset of narrative shift reports collected over more than 1,300 days in a unique family of non-human animals, chimpanzees who use American Sign Language to communicate. Play was more common when young males were present as partners; though an adult female played very frequently as well. Laughter followed the established social hierarchy, was more common during contact play, and then when a chimpanzee was the recipient of contact. Humor in these chimpanzees followed the themes of much of human humor: dominance, aggression, scatology, and incongruity.
Summer 2007 – Maureen Sophia McCarthy
USE OF GESTURE SEQUENCES IN CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE (PAN TROGLODYTES) PLAY
Friends of Washoe, Summer 2007 Vol. 28 No.4
Abstract: This study examined the use of sensory modalities relative to a partner’s behavior in gesture sequences during captive chimpanzee play. The author hypothesized that chimpanzees would use visual gestures toward attentive recipients and auditory/tactile gestures toward inattentive recipients. She also hypothesized that gesture sequences would be more prevalent toward unresponsive rather than responsive recipients. The chimpanzees used significantly more auditory/tactile rather than visual gestures first in sequences with both attentive and inattentive recipients. They rarely used visual gestures toward inattentive recipients. Visual gestures were effective only with attentive recipients, but auditory/tactile gestures were effective with both attentive and inattentive recipients. Recipients responded significantly more to single gestures than to first gestures in sequences. Sequences indicated that recipients did not respond to initial gestures, whereas effective single gestures made more gestures unnecessary. The chimpanzees thus gestured appropriately relative to a recipient’s behavior and modified their interactions according to contextual social cues.
Spring 2007 – Jennifer Susan Keyser
COMMUNICATIVE ROLE OF PLAY BEHAVIORS IN CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEE PLAY
Friends of Washoe, Spring 2007 Vol. 28 No.3
Abstract: Play is ubiquitous across nearly all mammal species (Burghardt, 1984; Fagen 1981), and serves many functions including developing motor skills, socialization, and enhanced cognitive abilities (Burghardt, 1984, p.7). In every species in which play has been examined, behaviors that are exhibited in other contexts such as threat, also occur during play (Brown, 1988; Fagen 1981; Loizos, 1967; Pellis & Pellis, 1996). As a result, communication in the form of play signaling is essential for the continuation of the play bout. The present study expanded upon the findings of Jensvold, Sheeran, Halberg, and Keyser (2006) by examining the function of play faces, contact play, and arousal level specifically in relation to laughter and play bout duration. A hierarchical multiple regression revealed a significant positive correlation between laughter and duration. Duration was also a significant predicator of arousal level.
Winter 2007 – Julia T. Gallucci
CHIMPANZE THREAT GESTURES:COMMUNITY LEVEL DIFFERENCES
Friends Of Washoe, Winter 2007, Vol. 28 No.2
Abstract: The author compared threat gesture types and rates of threat gesturing between one free-living chimpanzee community in Gombe Stream Reserve, Tanzania, and one captive chimpanzee
community from the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington. The chimpanzees exhibited community-level
differences. Chimpanzees at Gombe used two group-typical gesture types and chimpanzees at CHCI used 13 group-typical gesture types. Chimpanzees at Gombe exhibited more gestures
per hour than chimpanzees at CHCI and chimpanzees at CHCI exhibited longer gestures than chimpanzees at Gombe. Grouptypical behaviors provide potential evidence of culture in chimpanzees.
Fall 2005 - Tennyson Egan
CHIMPANZEES EXHIBIT IMAGINARY PLAY
Friends of Washoe, Fall 2005, Number 1
Abstract: It has been said that imaginary play is unique and limited to humans. However, it has been found in previous research that nonhuman species demonstrate imaginary play. In this study, the researcher investigated imaginary play in a group of five signing chimpanzees. The researcher viewed and analyzed over 67 hours of videotaped chimpanzee behavior, recorded over an 18-year period, for imaginary play. A total of 21 instances of imaginary play were found and classified in four of six categories of imagination. The important conclusion in this study is that imaginary play is demonstrated by species other than humans. This study provides evidence that imaginary play represents a phylogenetic continuity rather than a discontinuity.
Summer 2005 - Deborah J. Tierney
A COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN FOUR CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES AS INDICATED BY RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS VERSUS STATEMENTS
Friends of Washoe, Summer 2005, Number 4
Abstract: The chimpanzees Washoe, Tatu, and Dar, were cross-fostered in an American Sign Language environment and treated as conversational partners by human caregivers. The chimpanzee Loulis was adopted by Washoe, and acquired his signs from Washoe and other signing chimpanzees. The current study investigated the responses of these chimpanzees in two question conditions and two statement conditions. Responses were divided into four categories. Due to small sample size, the conditions were collapsed into two conditions (question/statement) and the response categories were collapsed into two response categories (signed response/no signed response). A one-way, Fisher's Exact Test was used for analysis. The cross-fosterlings often signed in response to questions and often did not sign in response to statements. This relationship was significant for Washoe and Tatu (p=.037 and p=.033) and approached significance for Dar (p=.058). Loulis often signed in response to both questions and statements (p=.324). Communicative competence is discussed.
Winter 2005 - Cleve Hicks
CHIMPANZEE TOOL USE IN THE NGOTTO FOREST, CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC.
October 2004 - Shannon Reider
COMMUNITY LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN THE USE OF GROOMING GESTURES.
Friends of Washoe, Spring/Summer 2004, Numbers 3 & 4
Abstract: Use of gestures in the grooming context were compared between one community of chimpanzees from Kibale National Park in Uganda, one community from Gombe Stream Reserve in Tanzania, and the community from the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI) at Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington. Community level differences were found. The foothold, handhold, and the signs of American Sign Language were used at CHCI and not found in the free-living communities. One gesture, the grooming handclasp, was found only at Kibale. The foothold, the handhold, the signs of ASL, and the grooming handclasp are good candidates for culturally determined gestural dialects. All communities used a majority of their gestures to maintain grooming.
June 2003 – Holly Bowman
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES AND THEIR HUMAN CAREGIVERS IN CAPTIVE SETTINGS: THE EFFECTS OF GESTURAL COMMUNICATION ON RECIPROCITY
Friends of Washoe, Fall 2003, Volume 25,Number 1.
Abstract: The types of communicative behaviors used during interactions between captive chimpanzees and human caregivers can have profound effects on the chimpanzees' psychological well-being. Auditory, tactile and visual communicative behaviors used during these interactions were studied at two different facilities: the Fauna Foundation, a private sanctuary with non-signing chimpanzees and caregivers; and the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute (CHCI), a university-based sanctuary with both signing chimpanzees and caregivers. Eighteen chimpanzees and 10 caregivers were observed during meal service for 30 hours over the course of approximately two weeks per facility. Results indicate differences in the types of communicative behaviors used, and these differences depend on the facility where the chimpanzees reside and the orientation of the human caregiver. Implications for captive management are discussed.
May 2003 - Lesley Lynn Daspit
FOLKBIOLOGY OF THE BOFI FORAGERS AND FARMERS IN CENTRAL AFRICA: INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF FOREST ANIMALS
Friends of Washoe, Summer 2003, Volume 4, Number 4.
May 2001 - Sarah Angela Baeckler
CHIPMANZEE-CAREGIEVR INTERACTIONS IN CAPTIVE SETTINGS: THE EFFECTS OF "CULTURES" OF CAPTIVE MANAGEMENT
Friends of Washoe, Fall 2001, Volume 23, Number 1.
Abstract: Interactions between chimpanzees and human caregivers can have profound effects on both the humans and the chimpanzees. These interactions were studied at three different facilities. Twenty-one chimpanzees and five caregivers were observed during their daily interactions over the course of approximately two weeks per facility. Results indicate differences in the types and styles of interactions that take place at each facility, and the relationships between the chimpanzees and their caregivers. Implications for captive management are discussed.
May 2001 - John Blaine Mulcahy
PRECONFLICT BEHAVIOR IN A SMALL GROUP OF CHIMPANZEES
Friends of Washoe, Summer 2001, Volume 22, Number 3.
August, 2000 - Diana Jean Goodrich
PLAY INITIATION IN ADULT CHIMPANZEES
Friends of Washoe, Winter 2001, Volume 22, Number 2.
July 2000 - Gabriel Saul Waters
SYMPATHETIC MOUTH MOVEMENTS ACCOMPANYING FINE MOTOR MOVEMENTS IN FIVE CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Summer 2000, Volume 20, Number 7.
June 2000 – Lorien Vaughan
THE USE OF HIGH AROUSAL AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION DURING CONFLICT AND POST-CONFLCT PERIODS BY A GROUP OF FIVE CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Fall 2000, Volume 21, Number 8.
May 2000 - Adriana Martin
ROLE OF DELAY IN MODE OF INITIATION AND SUBSEQUENT REPAIR OF COMMUNICATIVE INTERACTION BY CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes) TOWARD HUMAN WITH EYES OPEN OR CLOSED
Friends of Washoe, Spring 2000, Volume 20, Number 6.
August 1999 - Bonita Aline King
THE EFFECT OF FAMILIARITY ON SOCIAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes) AND HUMANS (Homo sapiens)
Friends of Washoe, Winter 2000, Volume 20, Number 5.
June 1999 – Marcee J. Harvey
SECONDARY TOOL MODIFICATION BY CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES
Friends of Washoe, Summer/Fall 1998, Volume 19, Numbers 3 & 4.
March 1999 - Crickette Marie Sanz
FECAL TESTOSTERONE AND CORTICOSTERONE LEVELS AND BEHAVIORAL CORRELATES IN A SOCIALLY STABLE GROUP OF FIVE CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES
Friends of Washoe, Fall 1999, Volume 20, Number 4.
Abstract: The present study incorporated noninvasive sampling techniques to examine baseline hormone levels and behavioral correlates in a small group of socially housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Fecal sample and behavioral data were collected seven days a week for six weeks. Hormones were extracted and techniques validated for each sex. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure was used to measure testosterone and Corticosterone in fecal sample extracts. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterize immunoreactive fecal testosterone metabolites. Specific behavioral measures included female sex skin swelling phase, male body odor, behavioral context, and arousal level.
Parallelism between hormone standards and chimpanzee fecal extracts was demonstrated for both hormones. Quantitative recovery of unlabeled steroids confirmed the absence of interfering substances in fecal extracts. There were no differences (p>0.05) between males and females in absolute hormone concentrations. RIA of fecal extracts after HPLC revealed that the testosterone antiserum employed did not crossreact with other androgen metabolites in chimpanzee feces. In general, corticosterone and testosterone excretion was relatively steady despite several high arousal interactions. In one instance, testosterone concentrations increased in the dominant female two days after a stressful event.
These data revealed that fecal testosterone and corticosterone metablites can be readily documented in chimpanzee feces, but further work is needed to determine the physiological validity of these methods. However, this approach has potential for improving our understanding of the interrelationships between hormones and social behaviors in chimpanzees.
March 1999 – Joe Anna Hood
SOCIAL REFERENCING IN ADULT CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Spring 1999, Volume 20, Number 2.
May 1998 - Michelle Ann Haislip
ROLE OF PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF HUMAN EYE GAZE IN THE INITIATION OF COMMUNICATIVE INTERACTIONS INVOLVING JOINT ATTENTION IN CHIMPANZEES
Friends of Washoe, Winter 1999, Volume 20, Number 1.
March 1997 - Katherine Cadish Hall
THE USE OF THE SIGNS OF ASL IN THE PRODUCTION OF ADDITIVE-CONJUNCTIVE GROUPINGS OF COLORED EXEMPLARS BY A CHIMPANZEE (Pan troglodytes)
Central Washington University - Library
July 1996 - Shannon Nicole Cianelli
CHIMPANZEE TO CHIMPANZEE AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION DURING HIGH AROUSAL INTERACTIONS
Friends of Washoe, Winter/Spring 1997, Volume 18, Number 1&2.
May 1996 - Mark A. Krause
REFERENTIAL POINTING IN CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Summer/Fall 1996, Volume 17, Number 3&4.
November 1995 - Kimberly L. Williams
COMPREHENSIVE NIGHTTIME ACTIVITY BUDGETS OF CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Winter/Spring 1996, Volume 17, Number 1&2.
May 1995 - Julia Quentin Davis
THE PERCEPTION OF DISTORTIONS IN THE SIGNS OF AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE BY A GROUP OF CROSS-FOSTERED CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Winter/Spring 1995, Volume 16, Numbers 1 & 2.
May 1995 - Jennifer Ann Beaucher
CATEGORIZATION MODELS USED BY CHIMPANZEES WHEN FORMING BASIC LEVEL CATEGORIES
Friends of Washoe, Summer/Fall 1995, Volume 16, Numbers 3 & 4.
July 1994 - Danielle Laurie Simpson
RESPONSES OF CHIMPANZEES TO SIGNED INTERROGATIVE AND DECLARATIVE UTTERANCES
Central Washington University -Library
May 1994 - Mary Katherine Radeke
IMITATION OF NONSENSE AND FAMILIAR SIGNS BY FIVE CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Summer/Fall 1994, Volume 15, Numbers 3 & 4.
January 1993 - Vicki Marie Kennerud
THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CONTEXT ON THE USE OF AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE BY FIVE CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Summer/Fall 1991, Volumes 11 & 12, Number 3.
October 1992 - Abeer Abden Nabi
VIDEOTAPES AS ENRICHMENT FOR A SOCIALLY—HOUSED GROUP OF CHIMPANZEES
Friends of Washoe, Winter 1993, Volume 14, Number 2.
November 1990 - Elizabeth Lea Raymond
AN EXAMINATION OF PRIVATE SIGNING IN DEAF CHILDREN IN A NATURALISTIC ENVIRONMENT
Friends of Washoe, Fall/Winter 1990-1991, Volume 10, Numbers 1 & 2.
June 1990 - Sheila M. Steiner
HANDEDNESS IN CHIMPANZEES
Friends of Washoe, Summer 1990, Volume 9, Number 4.
August 1989 - Heidi Lynne Shaw
COMPREHENSION OF THE SPOKEN WORD AND ASL TRANSLATION BY CHIMPANZEES (Pan troglodytes)
Friends of Washoe, Fall/Winter 1989-1990, Volume 9, Numbers 1 & 2.
July 1989 - Mary Lee Abshire
IMAGINARY PLAY IN CHIMPANZEES
Friends of Washoe, Summer 1989, Volume 9, Number 4.
June 1987- Mark Douglas Bodamer
CHIMPANZEES SIGNING TO THEMSELVES
Friends of Washoe, Spring 1990, Volume 9, Number 3.
August 1985 – Katrina Patricia Mendis
A COMPARATIVE STUDY EXAMINING THE MODULATORY USAGE OF SIGNING CHIMPANZEES
Central Washington University – Library
July 1985 - Kelly O’Donoghue
THE USE OF SIGN LANGUAGE DURING PLAY INTERACTIONS IN A GROUP OF JUVENILE AND ADULT CHIMPANZEES
Central Washington University – Library
June 1983 - Donna Jean Schoenfeld
CEREBRAL SPECIALIZATION FOR THE PERCEPTION OF MOVING ASL SIGNS
Central Washington University – Library